Caterpillar Inc.: Files Form 10-K FYE December 31, 2020
Information réglementaire transmise par EQS Group.
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SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
☒ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
☐ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to .
Commission File No. 1-768
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation) (IRS Employer I.D. No.)
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (224) 551-4000
Title of each class Trading Symbol (s) Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock ($1.00 par value) CAT New York Stock Exchange (1)
9 3/8% Debentures due March 15, 2021 CAT21 New York Stock Exchange
8% Debentures due February 15, 2023 CAT23 New York Stock Exchange
5.3% Debentures due September 15, 2035 CAT35 New York Stock Exchange
(1) In addition to the New York Stock Exchange, Caterpillar common stock is also listed on stock exchanges in France and Switzerland.
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing
requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer", "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
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Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company ☐
Emerging growth company ☐
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.s.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No
As of June 30, 2020, there were 541,506,575 shares of common stock of the Registrant outstanding, and the aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant (assuming only for purposes of this computation that directors and executive officers may be affiliates) was approximately $67.9 billion.
As of December 31, 2020, there were 545,303,847 shares of common stock of the Registrant outstanding.
Portions of the documents listed below have been incorporated by reference into the indicated parts of this Form 10-K, as specified in the responses to the item numbers involved.
Part III 2021 Annual Meeting Proxy Statement (Proxy Statement) to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year.
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Item 1. Business.
Originally organized as Caterpillar Tractor Co. in 1925 in the State of California, our company was reorganized as Caterpillar Inc. in 1986 in the State of Delaware. As used herein, the term "Caterpillar," "we," "us," "our" or "the company" refers to Caterpillar Inc. and its subsidiaries unless designated or identified otherwise.
With 2020 sales and revenues of $41.748 billion, Caterpillar is the world's leading manufacturer of construction and mining equipment, diesel and natural gas engines, industrial gas turbines and diesel-electric locomotives. The company principally operates through its three primary segments - Construction Industries, Resource Industries and Energy & Transportation - and also provides financing and related services through its Financial Products segment. Caterpillar is also a leading U.S. exporter. Through a global network of independent dealers and direct sales of certain products, Caterpillar builds long-term relationships with customers around the world.
Currently, we have five operating segments, of which four are reportable segments and are described below. Categories of Business Organization
Other information about our operations in 2020, including certain risks associated with our operations, is included in Part II, Item 7 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations."
Our Construction Industries segment is primarily responsible for supporting customers using machinery in infrastructure, forestry and building construction. The majority of machine sales in this segment are made in the heavy and general construction, rental, quarry and aggregates markets and mining.
The nature of customer demand for construction machinery varies around the world. Customers in developing economies often prioritize purchase price in making their investment decisions, while customers in developed economies generally weigh productivity and other performance criteria that contribute to lower owning and operating costs over the lifetime of the machine. To meet customer expectations in developing economies, Caterpillar developed differentiated product offerings that target customers in those markets, including our SEM brand machines. We believe that these customer-driven product innovations enable us to compete more effectively in developing economies. The majority of Construction Industries' research and development spending in 2020 focused on the next generation of construction machines.
The competitive environment for construction machinery is characterized by some global competitors and many regional and specialized local competitors. Examples of global competitors include CASE (part of CNH Industrial N.V.), Deere Construction & Forestry (part of Deere & Company), Doosan Infracore Co., Ltd., Hitachi Construction Machinery Co., Ltd., Hyundai Construction Equipment Co., Ltd., J.C. Bamford Excavators Ltd., Kobelco Construction Machinery (part of Kobe Steel, Ltd), Komatsu Ltd., Kubota Farm & Industrial Machinery (part of Kubota Corporation), and Volvo Construction Equipment (part of the Volvo Group). As an example of regional and local competitors, our competitors in China also include Guangxi LiuGong Machinery Co., Ltd., Longking Holdings Ltd., Sany Heavy Industry Co., Ltd., XCMG Construction Machinery Co., Ltd., Shandong Lingong Construction Machinery Co., Ltd. (SDLG, part of the Volvo Group) and Shantui Construction Machinery Co., Ltd., (part of Shandong Heavy Industry Group Co.). Each of these companies has varying product lines that compete with Caterpillar products, and each has varying degrees of regional focus.
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The Construction Industries product portfolio includes the following machines and related parts and work tools:
multi-terrain loaders · skid steer loaders medium wheel loaders
The Resource Industries segment is primarily responsible for supporting customers using machinery in mining, heavy construction, and quarry and aggregates. Caterpillar offers a broad product range and services to deliver comprehensive solutions for our customers. We develop and manufacture high productivity equipment for both surface and underground mining operations around the world, as well as provide drivetrains, hydraulic systems, electronics and software for Cat machines and engines. Our equipment is used to extract and haul copper, iron ore, coal, oil sands, aggregates, gold and other minerals and ores. In addition to equipment, Resource Industries also develops and sells technology products and services to provide customers fleet management systems, equipment management analytics and autonomous machine capabilities.
Customers in most markets place an emphasis on equipment that is highly productive, reliable and provides the lowest total cost of ownership over the life of the equipment. In some developing markets, customers often prioritize purchase price in making their investment decisions. We believe our ability to control the integration and design of key machine components represents a competitive advantage. Our research and development efforts remain focused on providing customers the lowest total cost of ownership enabled through the highest quality, most productive products and services in the industry.
The competitive environment for Resource Industries consists of a few larger global competitors that compete in several of the markets that we serve and a substantial number of smaller companies that compete in a more limited range of products, applications, and regional markets. Our global surface competitors include Deere Construction & Forestry (part of Deere & Company), Epiroc AB, Hitachi Construction Machinery Co., Ltd., Komatsu Ltd., Liebherr-International AG, Sandvik AB, and Volvo Construction Equipment. Our global underground competitors include Epiroc AB, Komatsu Ltd., and Sandvik AB.
The Resource Industries product portfolio includes the following machines and related parts:
Energy & Transportation
Our Energy & Transportation segment supports customers in oil and gas, power generation, marine, rail and industrial applications, including Cat(R) machines. The product and services portfolio includes reciprocating engines, generator sets, gas turbines and turbine-related services, the remanufacturing of Caterpillar engines and components and remanufacturing services for other companies, diesel-electric locomotives and other rail-related products and services and product support of on-highway vocational trucks for North America.
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Regulatory emissions standards require us to continue to make investments as new products and new regulations are introduced. Ongoing compliance with these regulations remains a focus. Emissions compliance in developing markets is complex due to rapidly evolving and unique requirements where enforcement processes can often vary. We employ robust product development and manufacturing processes to help us comply with these regulations.
The competitive environment for reciprocating engines in marine, oil and gas, industrial and electric power generation systems along with turbines in oil and gas and electric power generation consists of a few larger global competitors that compete in a variety of markets that Caterpillar serves, and a substantial number of smaller companies that compete in a limited-size product range, geographic region and/or application. Principal global competitors include Cummins Inc., Deutz AG, INNIO, Rolls-Royce Power Systems and Wärtsilä Corp. Other competitors, such as Fiat Industrial SpA (CNHI), GE Power, Kawasaki Heavy Industries Energy System & Plant Engineering, MAN Energy Solutions (VW), Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Siemens Power and Gas,Volvo Penta AB, Weichai Power Co., Ltd., and other emerging market competitors compete in certain markets in which Caterpillar competes. An additional set of competitors, including Aggreko plc, Baker Hughes Co., Generac Holdings, Kohler Power Systems, and others, are primarily packagers who source engines and/or other components from domestic and international suppliers and market products regionally and internationally through a variety of distribution channels. In rail-related businesses, our global competitors include Alstom SA, CRRC Corp., LTD., The Greenbrier Companies, Siemens Mobility, Voestalpine AG, Vossloh AG and Wabtec Freight. We also compete with other companies on a more limited range of products, services and/or geographic regions.
The Energy & Transportation portfolio includes the following products and related parts:
Financial Products Segment
The business of our Financial Products Segment is primarily conducted by Cat Financial, Insurance Services and their respective subsidiaries and affiliates. Cat Financial is a wholly owned finance subsidiary of Caterpillar Inc. and it provides retail and wholesale financing to customers and dealers around the world for Caterpillar products, as well as financing for vehicles, power generation facilities and marine vessels that, in most cases, incorporate Caterpillar products. Retail financing is primarily comprised of installment sale contracts and other equipment-related loans, working capital loans, finance leases and operating leases. Wholesale financing to Caterpillar dealers consists primarily of inventory and rental fleet financing. In addition, we purchase short-term wholesale trade receivables from Caterpillar. The various financing plans offered by Cat Financial are designed to support sales of Caterpillar products and generate financing income for Cat Financial. A significant portion of Cat Financial's activity is conducted in North America, with additional offices and subsidiaries in Latin America, Asia/Pacific, Europe, Africa and the Middle East.
For almost 40 years, Cat Financial has been providing financing in the various markets in which it participates, contributing to its knowledge of asset values, industry trends, product structuring and customer needs.
In certain instances, Cat Financial's operations are subject to supervision and regulation by state, federal and various foreign governmental authorities, and may be subject to various laws and judicial and administrative decisions imposing various requirements and restrictions which, among other things, (i) regulate credit granting activities and the administration of loans, (ii) establish maximum interest rates, finance charges and other charges, (iii) require disclosures to customers and investors, (iv) govern secured transactions, (v) set collection, foreclosure, repossession and other trade practices and (vi) regulate the use and reporting of information related to a borrower's credit experience. Cat Financial's ability to comply with these and other governmental and legal requirements and restrictions affects its operations.
Cat Financial's retail loans (totaling 49 percent*) include:
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Cat Financial's retail leases (totaling 37 percent*) include:
Cat Financial also purchases short-term receivables from Caterpillar (12 percent*).
Cat Financial's wholesale loans and leases (2 percent*) include inventory/rental programs, which provide assistance to dealers by financing their new Caterpillar inventory and rental fleets.
*Indicates the percentage of Cat Financial's total portfolio at December 31, 2020. We define total portfolio as total finance receivables (net of unearned income and allowance for credit losses) plus equipment on operating leases, less accumulated depreciation. For more information on the above and Cat Financial's concentration of credit risk, please refer to Note 7 - "Cat Financial Financing Activities" of Part II, Item 8 "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."
Cat Financial operates in a highly competitive environment, with financing for users of Caterpillar equipment available through a variety of sources, principally commercial banks and finance and leasing companies. Cat Financial's competitors include, Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Limited, Banc of America Leasing & Capital LLC, BNP Paribas Leasing Solutions Limited, Wells Fargo Equipment Finance Inc., Societe General and various other banks and finance companies. In addition, many of our manufacturing competitors own financial subsidiaries, such as John Deere Capital Corporation, Komatsu Financial L.P., Kubota Credit Corporation and Volvo Financial Services, which utilize many below-market interest rate programs (funded by the manufacturer) to assist machine sales. Caterpillar and Cat Financial work together to provide a broad array of financial merchandising programs around the world to meet these competitive offers.
Cat Financial's financial results are largely dependent upon the ability of Caterpillar dealers to sell equipment and customers' willingness to enter into financing or leasing agreements. Cat Financial is also affected by, among other things, the availability of funds from its financing sources, its cost of funds relative to its competitors and general economic conditions such as inflation and market interest rates.
Cat Financial has a match-funding policy that addresses interest rate risk by aligning the interest rate profile (fixed or floating rate) of its debt portfolio with the interest rate profile of its receivables portfolio within predetermined ranges on an ongoing basis. In connection with that policy, Cat Financial uses interest rate derivative instruments to modify the debt structure to match assets within the receivables portfolio. This matched funding reduces the volatility of margins between interest-bearing assets and interest-bearing liabilities, regardless of which direction interest rates move. For more information regarding match funding, please see Note 4 - "Derivative financial instruments and risk management" of Part II, Item 8 "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data." See also the risk factors associated with our financial products business included in Item 1 A. of this Form 10-K.
In managing foreign currency risk for Cat Financial's operations, the objective is to minimize earnings volatility resulting from conversion and the remeasurement of net foreign currency balance sheet positions, and future transactions denominated in foreign currencies. This policy allows the use of foreign currency forward, option and cross currency contracts to offset the risk of currency mismatch between the assets and liabilities, and exchange rate risk associated with future transactions denominated in foreign currencies.
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Cat Financial provides financing only when certain criteria are met. Credit decisions are based on a variety of credit quality factors including prior payment experience, customer financial information, credit ratings, loan-to-value ratios and other internal metrics. Cat Financial typically maintains a security interest in retail-financed equipment and requires physical damage insurance coverage on financed equipment. Cat Financial finances a significant portion of Caterpillar dealers' sales and inventory of Caterpillar equipment throughout the world. Cat Financial's competitive position is improved by marketing programs offered in conjunction with Caterpillar and/or Caterpillar dealers. Under these programs, Caterpillar, or the dealer, funds an amount at the outset of the transaction, which Cat Financial then recognizes as revenue over the term of the financing. We believe that these marketing programs provide Cat Financial a significant competitive advantage in financing Caterpillar products.
Caterpillar Insurance Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of Caterpillar Insurance Holdings Inc., is a U.S. insurance company domiciled in Missouri and primarily regulated by the Missouri Department of Insurance. Caterpillar Insurance Company is licensed to conduct property and casualty insurance business in 50 states, the District of Columbia and Guam, and as such, is also regulated in those jurisdictions. The State of Missouri acts as the lead regulatory authority and monitors Caterpillar Insurance Company's financial status to ensure that it is in compliance with minimum solvency requirements, as well as other financial ratios prescribed by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners. Caterpillar Insurance Company is also licensed to conduct insurance business through a branch in Zurich, Switzerland and, as such, is regulated by the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority.
Caterpillar Life Insurance Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of Caterpillar, is a U.S. insurance company domiciled in Missouri and primarily regulated by the Missouri Department of Insurance. Caterpillar Life Insurance Company is licensed to conduct life and accident and health insurance business in 26 states and the District of Columbia and, as such, is also regulated in those jurisdictions. The State of Missouri acts as the lead regulatory authority and it monitors the financial status to ensure that it is in compliance with minimum solvency requirements, as well as other financial ratios prescribed by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners. Caterpillar Life Insurance Company provides reinsurance coverage to Caterpillar Insurance Company. Specifically, Caterpillar Life Insurance Company has entered into a reinsurance agreement with Caterpillar Insurance Company, assuming 100% of the risk of an Accident and Health Stop Loss Insurance Policy to cover a Caterpillar Voluntary Employees' Benefits Association (VEBA) Trust for medical losses sustained by a select group of Caterpillar retirees and dependents.
Caterpillar Insurance Co. Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of Caterpillar Insurance Holdings Inc., is a captive insurance company domiciled in Bermuda and regulated by the Bermuda Monetary Authority. Caterpillar Insurance Co. Ltd. holds a Class 2 license (as defined by the Bermuda Insurance Amendment Act of 1995), which primarily insures its parent and affiliates. Caterpillar Insurance Co.Ltd. also provides reinsurance to Caterpillar Insurance Company under quota share reinsurance agreements for contractual liability and contractors' equipment programs in the United States. Finally, Caterpillar Insurance Co. Ltd. holds a Class B license to provide life and disability reinsurance covering Caterpillar Inc.'s International employee benefits program. The Bermuda Monetary Authority is responsible for monitoring Caterpillar Insurance Co. Ltd.'s compliance with solvency requirements, and requires an Annual Financial Filing for this purpose.
Caterpillar Product Services Corporation (CPSC), a wholly owned subsidiary of Caterpillar, is a warranty company domiciled in Missouri. CPSC previously conducted a machine extended service contract program in Germany and France by providing machine extended warranty reimbursement protection to dealers in Germany and France. The program was discontinued effective January 1, 2013, though CPSC continues to provide extended warranty reimbursement protection under existing contracts.
Caterpillar Insurance Services Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Caterpillar Insurance Holdings Inc., is a Tennessee insurance agency licensed in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Guam. It provides insurance services for all property and casualty and life and health lines of business.
Caterpillar's insurance group provides protection and service for claims under the following programs:
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Caterpillar products and product support services are sold worldwide into a variety of highly competitive markets. In all markets, we compete on the basis of product performance, customer service, quality and price. From time to time, the intensity of competition results in price discounting in a particular industry or region. Such price discounting puts pressure on margins and can negatively impact operating profit. Outside the United States, certain competitors enjoy competitive advantages inherent to operating in their home countries or regions.
Raw Materials and Component Products
We source our raw materials and manufactured components from suppliers both domestically and internationally. These purchases include unformed materials and rough and finished parts. Unformed materials include a variety of steel products, which are then cut or formed to shape and machined in our facilities. Rough parts include various sized steel and iron castings and forgings, which are machined to final specification levels inside our facilities. Finished parts are ready to assemble components, which are made either to Caterpillar specifications or to supplier developed specifications. We machine and assemble some of the components used in our machines, engines and power generation units and to support our after-market dealer parts sales. We also purchase various goods and services used in production, logistics, offices and product development processes. We maintain global strategic sourcing models to meet our global facilities' production needs while building longterm supplier relationships and leveraging enterprise spend. We expect our suppliers to maintain, at all times, industry-leading levels of quality and the ability to timely deliver raw materials and component products for our machine and engine products. However, in some cases, increases in demand or supply chain disruptions have led to parts and components constraints across some products. We use a variety of agreements with suppliers to protect our intellectual property and processes to monitor and mitigate risks of the supply base causing a business disruption. The risks monitored include supplier financial viability, the ability to increase or decrease production levels, business continuity, quality and delivery.
Patents and Trademarks
We own a number of patents and trademarks, which have been obtained over a period of years and relate to the products we manufacture and the services we provide. These patents and trademarks are generally considered beneficial to our business. We do not regard our business as being dependent upon any single patent or group of patents.
The dollar amount of backlog believed to be firm was approximately $14.2 billion at December 31, 2020 and $13.7 billion at December 31, 2019. Compared with year-end 2019, the order backlog increased in Construction Industries, partially offset by decreases in Energy & Transportation and Resource Industries. Of the total backlog at December 31, 2020, approximately $3.6 billion was not expected to be filled in 2021.
Dealers and Distributors
We distribute our machines principally through a worldwide organization of dealers (dealer network), 45 located in the United States and 116 located outside the United States, serving 192 countries. We sell reciprocating engines principally through the dealer network and to other manufacturers for use in products. We also sell some of the reciprocating engines manufactured by our subsidiary Perkins Engines Company Limited through its worldwide network of 92 distributors covering 183 countries. We sell the FG Wilson branded electric power generation systems primarily manufactured by our subsidiary Caterpillar Northern Ireland Limited through its worldwide network of 150 distributors covering 109 countries. We also sell some of the large, medium speed reciprocating engines under the MaK brand through a worldwide network of 20 distributors covering 130 countries.
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Our dealers do not deal exclusively with our products; however, in most cases sales and servicing of our products are the dealers' principal business. We sell some products, primarily turbines and locomotives, directly to end customers through sales forces employed by the company. At times, these employees are assisted by independent sales representatives.
While the large majority of our worldwide dealers are independently owned and operated, we own and operate a dealership in Japan that covers approximately 80% of the Japanese market: Nippon Caterpillar Division. We are currently operating this Japanese dealer directly and we report its results in the All Other operating segment. There are also three independent dealers in the Southern Region of Japan.
For Caterpillar branded products, the company's relationship with each of its independent dealers is memorialized in standard sales and service agreements. Pursuant to these agreements, the company grants the dealer the right to purchase and sell its products and to service the products in a specified geographic service territory. The company establishes prices to dealers after receiving input from dealers on transactional pricing in the marketplace. The company also agrees to defend its intellectual property and to provide warranty and technical support to the dealer. The agreement further grants the dealer a non-exclusive license to use the company's trademarks, service marks and brand names. In some instances, a separate trademark agreement exists between the company and a dealer.
In exchange for these rights, the agreement obligates the dealer to develop and promote the sale of the company's products to current and prospective customers in the dealer's service territory. Each dealer agrees to employ adequate sales and support personnel to market, sell and promote the company's products, demonstrate and exhibit the products, perform the company's product improvement programs, inform the company concerning any features that might affect the safe operation of any of the company's products and maintain detailed books and records of the dealer's financial condition, sales and inventories and make these books and records available at the company's reasonable request.
These sales and service agreements are terminable at will by either party primarily upon 90 days written notice.
Caterpillar's global workforce is united by Our Values In Action, Caterpillar's Code of Conduct. Integrity, Excellence, Teamwork, Commitment and Sustainability provide the foundation for our values-based culture. Our diversity and inclusion principles are embedded in our values. Our values unite us, and reflect our diverse cultures, languages, geographies, and businesses, as one Caterpillar team.
Health and Safety
The health and safety of our employees is an important focus at Caterpillar, and we strive to continually reduce our recordable injuries. As part of this focus on health and safety, Caterpillar has established a peer to peer safety mentorship and education program for manufacturing new hires to accelerate acclimation to our safety culture in many global locations. In 2020, the Company achieved a recordable injury frequency rate of 0.42, compared to the 2019 recordable injury frequency rate of 0.43.
The COVID-19 pandemic has further reinforced the importance of a safe and healthy workforce. In response to the pandemic, the Company implemented safeguards to protect our essential employees, including increased frequency of cleaning and disinfecting, social distancing practices, face coverings, temperature screening and other measures consistent with specific regulatory requirements and guidance from health authorities. We also instituted travel restrictions and remote work, for employees who were able to work from home.
Talent Development and Training
In addition to our focus on values and safety, we strive to continually attract, develop, engage, and retain a high-performing diverse global team that executes our enterprise strategy of long-term profitable growth.
We are committed to employee development and helping them reach their full potential, by making on-going investments in our team. Our global internships, engineering co-ops, and career programs for engineering, marketing, and manufacturing provide development opportunities for early career employees. We also have a continual focus on strengthening technical, professional and leadership capabilities at every level. Strategic talent reviews and succession planning occur at a minimum, annually, across our businesses.
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Our leadership development programs and focus on encouraging a variety of experiences help employees broaden understanding and increase perspective. For example, in Africa and the Middle East, we have established a program designed to upskill our existing talent pipeline and prepare them for future leadership in the region. A diverse team of professionals representing 26 different nationalities participated in the inaugural program.
Additionally, skill-based programs to upskill our manufacturing employees are developed locally and tailored to the specific needs of the business. In China, we continue to invest in programs that encourage women to pursue engineering management and leadership roles. In India, we tailored recruiting campaigns and on-site benefits to attract female employees. In 2020, Caterpillar, along with other companies across industries formed the OneTen coalition. The coalition is committed to upskill, hire and advance Black Americans over the next 10 years into family-sustaining careers.
Diversity and Inclusion
We are committed to fostering a diverse workforce and an inclusive environment. Our 14 Employee Resource Groups (ERGs), sponsored and supported by leadership, are integral to ensuring different voices and perspectives contribute to our strategy for long term profitable growth. Our ERGs partner with recruiters to help build relationships and recruit diverse talent through National Society of Black Engineers, Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers, Society of Women Engineers and Thurgood Marshall College Fund.
Our ERGs further engage our employees, helping contribute to development and retention. For example, Caterpillar's Latino Connection sponsors a mentoring program that connects diverse employees with senior leaders who can support their career goals through on-the-job project experience and leadership development. Additionally, WE Lead, Women Enabling Leadership, sponsored by our Women's Initiative Network engages female employees in early to mid-level management to help strengthen our female leader pipeline.
Compensation, Benefits and Employee Insights
Providing competitive benefits and compensation underpins our commitment to our engaged and productive employees. Our pay-for-performance philosophy aligns employee's individual contributions, behaviors and business results with individual rewards. Our comprehensive Total Health programs focus on purpose, as well as physical, emotional, financial, and social health. The annual Employee Insights Survey provides all employees the opportunity to confidentially share their perspectives and engages leaders to listen, learn and respond to employee feedback.
Management aligns employment levels with the needs of the business. We believe we have the appropriate human capital resources to successfully operate and deliver our enterprise strategy. As of December 31, 2020, we employed about 97,300 full-time persons of whom approximately 57,000 were located outside the United States. In the United States, we employed approximately 40,300 full-time persons, most of whom are at-will employees and, therefore, not subject to any type of employment contract or agreement. At select business units, we have hired certain highly specialized employees under employment contracts that specify a term of employment, pay and other benefits.
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As of December 31, 2020, there were approximately 6,900 U.S. hourly production employees who were covered by collective bargaining agreements with various labor unions, including The United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America (UAW), The International Association of Machinists and The United Steelworkers. Outside the United States, the company enters into employment contracts and agreements in those countries in which such relationships are mandatory or customary. The provisions of these agreements generally correspond in each case with the required or customary terms in the subject jurisdiction.
The company is regulated by federal, state and international environmental laws governing our use, transport and disposal of substances and control of emissions. In addition to governing our manufacturing and other operations, these laws often impact the development of our products, including, but not limited to, required compliance with air emissions standards applicable to internal combustion engines. We have made, and will continue to make, significant research and development and capital expenditures to comply with these emissions standards.
We are engaged in remedial activities at a number of locations, often with other companies, pursuant to federal and state laws. When it is probable we will pay remedial costs at a site, and those costs can be reasonably estimated, the investigation, remediation, and operating and maintenance costs of the remedial action are accrued against our earnings. Costs are accrued based on consideration of currently available data and information with respect to each individual site, including available technologies, current applicable laws and regulations, and prior remediation experience. Where no amount within a range of estimates is more likely, we accrue the minimum. Where multiple potentially responsible parties are involved, we consider our proportionate share of the probable costs. In formulating the estimate of probable costs, we do not consider amounts expected to be recovered from insurance companies or others. We reassess these accrued amounts on a quarterly basis. The amount recorded for environmental remediation is not material and is included in the line item "Accrued expenses" in Statement 3 - "Consolidated Financial Position at December 31" of Part II, Item 8 "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data." There is no more than a remote chance that a material amount for remedial activities at any individual site, or at all the sites in the aggregate, will be required.
The company files electronically with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) required reports on Form 8-K, Form 10Q, Form 10-K and Form 11-K; proxy materials; ownership reports for insiders as required by Section 16 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Exchange Act); registration statements on Forms S-3 and S-8, as necessary; and other forms or reports as required. The SEC maintains a website (www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The company maintains a website (www.Caterpillar.com) and copies of our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to these reports filed or furnished with the SEC are available free of charge through our website (www.Caterpillar.com/secfilings) as soon as reasonably practicable after filing with the SEC. Copies of our board committee charters, our board's Guidelines on Corporate Governance Issues, Worldwide Code of Conduct and other corporate governance information are available on our website (www.Caterpillar.com/governance). The information contained on the company's website is not included in, or incorporated by reference into, this annual report on Form 10-K.
Additional company information may be obtained as follows:
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Item 1A. Risk Factors.
The statements in this section describe the most significant risks to our business and should be considered carefully in conjunction with Part II, Item 7 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and the "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements" of Part II, Item 8 "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" to this Form 10-K. In addition, the statements in this section and other sections of this Form 10-K, including in Part II, Item 7 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," include "forward-looking statements" as that term is defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and involve uncertainties that could significantly impact results. Forward-looking statements give current expectations or forecasts of future events about the company or our outlook. You can identify forward-looking statements by the fact they do not relate to historical or current facts and by the use of words such as "believe," "expect," "estimate," "anticipate," "will be," "should," "plan," "forecast," "target," "guide," "project," "intend," "could" and similar words or expressions.
Forward-looking statements are based on assumptions and on known risks and uncertainties. Although we believe we have been prudent in our assumptions, any or all of our forward-looking statements may prove to be inaccurate, and we can make no guarantees about our future performance. Should known or unknown risks or uncertainties materialize or underlying assumptions prove inaccurate, actual results could materially differ from past results and/or those anticipated, estimated or projected.
We undertake no obligation to publicly update forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. You should, however, consult any subsequent disclosures we make in our filings with the SEC on Form 10-Q or Form 8-K.
The following is a cautionary discussion of risks, uncertainties and assumptions that we believe are material to our business. In addition to the factors discussed elsewhere in this report, the following are some of the important factors that, individually or in the aggregate, we believe could make our actual results differ materially from those described in any forward-looking statements. It is impossible to predict or identify all such factors and, as a result, you should not consider the following factors to be a complete discussion of risks, uncertainties and assumptions.
RISKS RELATED TO THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC
The COVID-19 pandemic could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and/or financial condition.
COVID-19 was identified in late 2019 and has spread globally. The rapid spread has resulted in weaker demand and constrained supply and the implementation of numerous measures to try to contain the virus, such as travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, shelter in place orders and shutdowns. These factors have impacted and may continue to impact all or portions of our workforce and operations.
The COVID-19 pandemic caused a global recession and it is uncertain when a sustained economic recovery may occur. The COVID-19 pandemic has also significantly increased economic and demand uncertainty and has led to a decrease in demand for the Company's products and services and caused supply chain disruptions. Economic uncertainties could continue to affect demand for the Company's products and services, the value of the equipment financed or leased, the demand for financing and the financial condition and credit risk of our dealers and customers.
Uncertainties related to the magnitude and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic, including new strains, may significantly adversely affect our business. These uncertainties include: the duration and impact of the resurgence in COVID-19 cases in any country, state, or region; prolonged reduction or closure of the Company's operations, or a delayed recovery in our operations; disruptions in the supply chain; increased logistics costs; the impact of the pandemic on the Company's customers and dealers; the impact of disruptions in the global capital markets and/or declines in our financial performance or credit ratings, which could impact the Company's ability to obtain funding in the future; and the impact of the pandemic on demand for our products and services as discussed above. It is unclear when a sustained economic recovery could occur and what a recovery may look like. All of these factors could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and/or financial condition.
The ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company's financial and operational results will be determined by the length of time that the pandemic continues, its effect on the demand for the Company's products and services and the supply chain, as well as the effect of governmental regulations imposed in response to the pandemic. The overall magnitude of the COVID-19 pandemic and the continued fluidity of the situation could materially and adversely impact our business, results of operations and/or financial condition.
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Our business and the industries we serve are highly sensitive to global and regional economic conditions.
Our results of operations are materially affected by economic conditions globally and regionally and in the particular industries we serve. The demand for our products and services tends to be cyclical and can be significantly reduced in periods of economic weakness characterized by lower levels of government and business investment, lower levels of business confidence, lower corporate earnings, high real interest rates, lower credit activity or tighter credit conditions, perceived or actual industry overcapacity, higher unemployment and lower consumer spending. A prolonged period of economic weakness may also result in increased expenses due to higher allowances for doubtful accounts and potential goodwill and asset impairment charges. Economic conditions vary across regions and countries, and demand for our products and services generally increases in those regions and countries experiencing economic growth and investment. Slower economic growth or a change in the global mix of regions and countries experiencing economic growth and investment could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The energy, transportation and mining industries are major users of our products, including the coal, iron ore, gold, copper, oil and natural gas industries. Customers in these industries frequently base their decisions to purchase our products and services on the expected future performance of these industries, which in turn are dependent in part on commodity prices. Prices of commodities in these industries are frequently volatile and can change abruptly and unpredictably in response to general economic conditions and trends, government actions, regulatory actions, commodity inventories, production and consumption levels, technological innovations, commodity substitutions, market expectations and any disruptions in production or distribution or changes in consumption. Economic conditions affecting the industries we serve may in the future also lead to reduced capital expenditures by our customers. Reduced capital expenditures by our customers are likely to lead to a decrease in the demand for our products and services and may also result in a decrease in demand for aftermarket parts as customers are likely to extend preventative maintenance schedules and delay major overhauls when possible.
The rates of infrastructure spending, commercial construction and housing starts also play a significant role in our results. Our products are an integral component of these activities, and as these activities decrease, demand for our products may be significantly impacted, which could negatively impact our results.
Commodity price changes, material price increases, fluctuations in demand for our products, significant disruptions to our supply chains or significant shortages of material may adversely impact our financial results or our ability to meet commitments to customers.
We are a significant user of steel and many other commodities required for the manufacture of our products. Increases in the prices of such commodities would increase our costs, negatively impacting our business, results of operations and financial condition if we are unable to fully offset the effect of these increased costs through price increases, productivity improvements or cost reduction programs.
We rely on suppliers to produce or secure material required for the manufacture of our products. Production challenges at suppliers (including suppliers of semiconductors), a disruption in deliveries to or from suppliers or decreased availability of raw materials or commodities could have an adverse effect on our ability to meet our commitments to customers or increase our operating costs. On the other hand, in circumstances where demand for our products is less than we expect, we may experience excess inventories and be forced to incur additional costs and our profitability may suffer. Additionally, we have experienced and expect to continue to experience transportation delays for parts, components and finished machines due to significant demands in global transportation and congestion at ports throughout the globe. Our business, competitive position, results of operations or financial condition could be negatively impacted if supply is insufficient for our operations, if significant transportation delays interfere with deliveries, if we experience excess inventories or if we are unable to adjust our production schedules or our purchases from suppliers to reflect changes in customer demand and market fluctuations on a timely basis.
Changes in government monetary or fiscal policies may negatively impact our results.
Most countries where our products and services are sold have established central banks to regulate monetary systems and influence economic activities, generally by adjusting interest rates. Interest rate changes affect overall economic growth, which affects demand for residential and nonresidential structures, as well as energy and mined products, which in turn affects sales of our products and services that support these activities. Interest rate changes may also affect our customers' ability to finance machine purchases, can change the optimal time to keep machines in a fleet and can impact the ability of our suppliers to finance the production of parts and components necessary to manufacture and support our products. Increases in interest rates could negatively impact sales and create supply chain inefficiencies.
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Central banks and other policy arms of many countries may take actions to vary the amount of liquidity and credit available in an economy. The impact from a change in liquidity and credit policies could negatively affect the customers and markets we serve or our suppliers, create supply chain inefficiencies and could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Changes in monetary and fiscal policies, along with other factors, may cause currency exchange rates to fluctuate. Actions that lead the currency exchange rate of a country where we manufacture products to increase relative to other currencies could reduce the competitiveness of products made in that country, which could adversely affect our competitive position, results of operations and financial condition.
Government policies on taxes and spending also affect our business. Throughout the world, government spending finances a significant portion of infrastructure development, such as highways, rail systems, airports, sewer and water systems, waterways and dams. Tax regulations determine asset depreciation lives and impact the after-tax returns on business activity and investment, both of which influence investment decisions. Unfavorable developments, such as decisions to reduce public spending or to increase taxes, could negatively impact our results.
Our global operations are exposed to political and economic risks, commercial instability and events beyond our control in the countries in which we operate.
Our global operations are dependent upon products manufactured, purchased and sold in the U.S. and internationally, including in countries with political and economic instability or uncertainty. Some countries have greater political and economic volatility and greater vulnerability to infrastructure and labor disruptions than others. Our business could be negatively impacted by adverse fluctuations in freight costs, limitations on shipping and receiving capacity, and other disruptions in the transportation and shipping infrastructure at important geographic points of exit and entry for our products. Operating in different regions and countries exposes us to a number of risks, including:
The occurrence of one or more of these events may negatively impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The success of our business depends on our ability to develop, produce and market quality products that meet our customers' needs.
Our business relies on continued global demand for our brands and products. To achieve business goals, we must develop and sell products that appeal to our dealers, OEMs and end-user customers. This is dependent on a number of factors, including our ability to maintain key dealer relationships, our ability to produce products that meet the quality, performance and price expectations of our customers and our ability to develop effective sales, advertising and marketing programs. In addition, our continued success in selling products that appeal to our customers is dependent on leading-edge innovation, with respect to both products and operations, and on the availability and effectiveness of legal protection for our innovations. Failure to continue to deliver high quality, innovative, competitive products to the marketplace, to adequately protect our intellectual property rights, to supply products that meet applicable regulatory requirements, including engine exhaust emission requirements or to predict market demands for, or gain market acceptance of, our products, could have a negative impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
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We operate in a highly competitive environment, which could adversely affect our sales and pricing.
We operate in a highly competitive environment. We compete on the basis of a variety of factors, including product performance, customer service, quality and price. There can be no assurance that our products will be able to compete successfully with other companies' products. Thus, our share of industry sales could be reduced due to aggressive pricing or product strategies pursued by competitors, unanticipated product or manufacturing difficulties, our failure to price our products competitively, our failure to produce our products at a competitive cost or an unexpected buildup in competitors' new machine or dealer-owned rental fleets, which could lead to downward pressure on machine rental rates and/or used equipment prices.
Lack of customer acceptance of price increases we announce from time to time, changes in customer requirements for price discounts, changes in our customers' behavior or a weak pricing environment could have an adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
In addition, our results and ability to compete may be impacted negatively by changes in our geographic and product mix of sales.
Increased information technology security threats and more sophisticated computer crime pose a risk to our systems, networks, products and services.
We rely upon information technology systems and networks, some of which are managed by third parties, in connection with a variety of business activities. Additionally, we collect and store sensitive information relating to our business, customers, dealers, suppliers and employees. Operating these information technology systems and networks and processing and maintaining this data in a secure manner, is critical to our business operations and strategy. Information technology security threats -- from user error to cybersecurity attacks designed to gain unauthorized access to our systems, networks and data -- are increasing in frequency and sophistication. Cybersecurity attacks may range from random attempts to coordinated and targeted attacks, including sophisticated computer crime and advanced persistent threats. These threats pose a risk to the security of our systems and networks and the confidentiality, availability and integrity of our data. Cybersecurity attacks could also include attacks targeting customer data or the security, integrity and/or reliability of the hardware and software installed in our products. It is possible that our information technology systems and networks, or those managed or provided by third parties, could have vulnerabilities, which could go unnoticed for a period of time. While various procedures and controls have been and are being utilized to mitigate such risks, there can be no guarantee that the actions and controls we have implemented and are implementing, or which we cause or have caused third party service providers to implement, will be sufficient to protect our systems, information or other property.
We have experienced cyber security threats and vulnerabilities in our systems and those of our third party providers, and we have experienced viruses and attacks targeting our information technology systems and networks. Such prior events, to date, have not had a material impact on our financial condition, results of operations or liquidity. However, the potential consequences of a future material cybersecurity attack include reputational damage, litigation with third parties, government enforcement actions, penalties, disruption to systems, unauthorized release of confidential or otherwise protected information, corruption of data, diminution in the value of our investment in research, development and engineering, and increased cybersecurity protection and remediation costs, which in turn could adversely affect our competitiveness, results of operations and financial condition. Due to the evolving nature of such security threats, the potential impact of any future incident cannot be predicted. Further, the amount of insurance coverage we maintain may be inadequate to cover claims or liabilities relating to a cybersecurity attack.
In addition, data we collect, store and process is subject to a variety of U.S. and international laws and regulations, such as the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation that became effective in May 2018, which may carry significant potential penalties for noncompliance.
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Our business is subject to the inventory management decisions and sourcing practices of our dealers and our OEM customers.
We sell finished products primarily through an independent dealer network and directly to OEMs and are subject to risks relating to their inventory management decisions and operational and sourcing practices. Both carry inventories of finished products as part of ongoing operations and adjust those inventories based on their assessments of future needs and market conditions, including levels of used equipment inventory and machine rental usage rates. Such adjustments may impact our results positively or negatively. If the inventory levels of our dealers and OEM customers are higher than they desire, they may postpone product purchases from us, which could cause our sales to be lower than the end-user demand for our products and negatively impact our results. Similarly, our results could be negatively impacted through the loss of time-sensitive sales if our dealers and OEM customers do not maintain inventory levels sufficient to meet customer demand.
We may not realize all of the anticipated benefits of our acquisitions, joint ventures or divestitures, or these benefits may take longer to realize than expected.
In pursuing our business strategy, we routinely evaluate targets and enter into agreements regarding possible acquisitions, divestitures and joint ventures. We often compete with others for the same opportunities. To be successful, we conduct due diligence to identify valuation issues and potential loss contingencies, negotiate transaction terms, complete complex transactions and manage post-closing matters such as the integration of acquired businesses. Further, while we seek to mitigate risks and liabilities of such transactions through due diligence, among other things, there may be risks and liabilities that our due diligence efforts fail to discover, that are not accurately or completely disclosed to us or that we inadequately assess. We may incur unanticipated costs or expenses following a completed acquisition, including post-closing asset impairment charges, expenses associated with eliminating duplicate facilities, litigation, and other liabilities. Risks associated with our past or future acquisitions also include the following:
* we may experience problems in retaining customers and integrating customer bases.
Many of these factors will be outside of our control and any one of them could result in increased costs, decreases in the amount of expected revenues and diversion of management's time and attention. They may also delay the realization of the benefits we anticipate when we enter into a transaction.
In order to conserve cash for operations, we may undertake acquisitions financed in part through public offerings or private placements of debt or equity securities, or other arrangements. Such acquisition financing could result in a decrease in our earnings and adversely affect other leverage measures. If we issue equity securities or equity-linked securities, the issued securities may have a dilutive effect on the interests of the holders of our common shares.
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Failure to implement our acquisition strategy, including successfully integrating acquired businesses, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, we make strategic divestitures from time to time. In the case of divestitures, we may agree to indemnify acquiring parties for certain liabilities arising from our former businesses. These divestitures may also result in continued financial involvement in the divested businesses following the transaction, including through guarantees or other financial arrangements. Lower performance by those divested businesses could affect our future financial results.
Union disputes or other labor matters could adversely affect our operations and financial results.
Some of our employees are represented by labor unions in a number of countries under various collective bargaining agreements with varying durations and expiration dates. There can be no assurance that any current or future issues with our employees will be resolved or that we will not encounter future strikes, work stoppages or other disputes with labor unions or our employees. We may not be able to satisfactorily renegotiate collective bargaining agreements in the United States and other countries when they expire. If we fail to renegotiate our existing collective bargaining agreements, we could encounter strikes or work stoppages or other disputes with labor unions. In addition, existing collective bargaining agreements may not prevent a strike or work stoppage at our facilities in the future. We may also be subject to general country strikes or work stoppages unrelated to our business or collective bargaining agreements. A work stoppage or other limitations on production at our facilities for any reason could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, many of our customers and suppliers have unionized work forces. Strikes or work stoppages experienced by our customers or suppliers could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Unexpected events may increase our cost of doing business or disrupt our operations.
The occurrence of one or more unexpected events, including war, acts of terrorism or violence, civil unrest, fires, tornadoes, tsunamis, hurricanes, earthquakes, floods and other forms of severe weather in the United States or in other countries in which we operate or in which our suppliers are located could adversely affect our operations and financial performance. Natural disasters, pandemic illness, including the current COVID-19 outbreak, equipment failures, power outages or other unexpected events could result in physical damage to and complete or partial closure of one or more of our manufacturing facilities or distribution centers, temporary or long-term disruption in the supply of component products from some local and international suppliers, and disruption and delay in the transport of our products to dealers, end-users and distribution centers. Existing insurance coverage may not provide protection for all of the costs that may arise from such events.
Disruptions or volatility in global financial markets could limit our sources of liquidity, or the liquidity of our customers, dealers and suppliers.
Continuing to meet our cash requirements over the long-term requires substantial liquidity and access to varied sources of funds, including capital and credit markets. Global economic conditions may cause volatility and disruptions in the capital and credit markets. Market volatility, changes in counterparty credit risk, the impact of government intervention in financial markets and general economic conditions may also adversely impact our ability to access capital and credit markets to fund operating needs. Global or regional economic downturns could cause financial markets to decrease the availability of liquidity, credit and credit capacity for certain issuers, including certain customers, dealers and suppliers. An inability to access capital and credit markets may have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and competitive position. Furthermore, changes in global economic conditions, including material cost increases and decreases in economic activity in key markets we serve, and the success of plans to manage cost increases, inventory and other important elements of our business may significantly impact our ability to generate funds from operations.
In addition, demand for our products generally depends on customers' ability to pay for our products, which, in turn, depends on their access to funds. Changes in global economic conditions may result in customers experiencing increased difficulty in generating funds from operations. Capital and credit market volatility and uncertainty may cause financial institutions to revise their lending standards, resulting in customers' decreased access to capital. If capital and credit market volatility occurs, customers' liquidity may decline which, in turn, would reduce their ability to purchase our products.
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Failure to maintain our credit ratings would increase our cost of borrowing and could adversely affect our cost of funds, liquidity, competitive position and access to capital markets.
Each of Caterpillar's and Cat Financial's costs of borrowing and their respective ability to access the capital markets are affected not only by market conditions but also by the short- and long-term credit ratings assigned to their respective debt by the major credit rating agencies. These ratings are based, in significant part, on each of Caterpillar's and Cat Financial's performance as measured by financial metrics such as net worth, interest coverage and leverage ratios, as well as transparency with rating agencies and timeliness of financial reporting. There can be no assurance that Caterpillar and Cat Financial will be able to maintain their credit ratings. We receive debt ratings from the major credit rating agencies. Moody's
long- and short-term ratings of Caterpillar and Cat Financial are A3 and Prime-2 ("low-A"), while other major credit rating agencies maintain a "mid-A" debt rating. A downgrade of our credit rating by any of the major credit rating agencies would result in increased borrowing costs and could adversely affect Caterpillar's and Cat Financial's liquidity, competitive position and access to the capital markets, including restricting, in whole or in part, access to the commercial paper market. There can be no assurance that the commercial paper market will continue to be a reliable source of short-term financing for Cat Financial or an available source of short-term financing for Caterpillar. An inability to access the capital markets could have an adverse effect on our cash flow, results of operations and financial condition.
Our Financial Products segment is subject to risks associated with the financial services industry.
Cat Financial is significant to our operations and provides financing support for a significant share of our global sales. The inability of Cat Financial to access funds to support its financing activities to our customers could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Continuing to meet Cat Financial's cash requirements over the long-term could require substantial liquidity and access to sources of funds, including capital and credit markets. Cat Financial has continued to maintain access to key global medium term note and commercial paper markets, but there can be no assurance that such markets will continue to represent a reliable source of financing. If global economic conditions were to deteriorate, Cat Financial could face materially higher financing costs, become unable to access adequate funding to operate and grow its business and/or meet its debt service obligations as they mature, and be required to draw upon contractually committed lending agreements and/or seek other funding sources. However, there can be no assurance that such agreements and other funding sources would be available or sufficient under extreme market conditions. Any of these events could negatively impact Cat Financial's business, as well as our and Cat Financial's results of operations and financial condition.
Market disruption and volatility may also lead to a number of other risks in connection with these events, including but not limited to:
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Changes in interest rates or market liquidity conditions could adversely affect Cat Financial's and our earnings and/or cash flow.
Changes in interest rates and market liquidity conditions could have an adverse impact on Cat Financial's and our earnings and cash flows. Because a significant number of the loans made by Cat Financial are made at fixed interest rates, its business results are subject to fluctuations in interest rates. Certain loans made by Cat Financial and various financing extended to Cat Financial are made at variable rates that use LIBOR as a benchmark for establishing the interest rate. LIBOR is the subject of recent proposals for reform. On July 27, 2017, the United Kingdom's Financial Conduct Authority ("FCA") announced that it intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit LIBOR rates after 2021. On November 18, 2020, ICE Benchmark Administration ("IBA"), the administrator of USD LIBOR, announced plans to consult on its intention to cease the publication of all GBP, EUR, CHF and JPY LIBOR settings immediately following the LIBOR publication on December 31, 2021. On November 30, 2020, IBA, with the support of the United States Federal Reserve and the FCA, announced plans to consult on ceasing publication of USD LIBOR on December 31, 2021 for only the one week and two month USD LIBOR tenors, and on June 30, 2023 for all other USD LIBOR tenors. While the November 30th announcement extends the transition period to June 2023, the United States Federal Reserve concurrently issued a statement advising banks to stop new USD LIBOR issuances by the end of 2021. These reforms may cause LIBOR to cease to exist, new methods of calculating LIBOR to be established such that LIBOR continues to exist after 2021 or the establishment of an alternative reference rate(s). Several offerings of securities that include such an alternative reference rate have now been completed by other companies. The consequences of these developments cannot be entirely predicted and could have an adverse impact on the market value for or value of LIBOR-linked securities, loans, derivatives, and other financial obligations or extensions of credit held by or due to Cat Financial, as well as the revenue and expenses associated with those securities, loans and financial instruments. Cat Financial has created a cross-functional team that will assess risk across multiple categories as it relates to the use of LIBOR in securities, loans, derivatives, and other financial obligations or extensions of credit held by or due to us. Other changes in market interest rates may influence Cat Financial's borrowing costs and could reduce its and our earnings and cash flows, returns on financial investments and the valuation of derivative contracts. Cat Financial manages interest rate and market liquidity risks through a variety of techniques that include a match funding strategy, the selective use of derivatives and a broadly diversified funding program. There can be no assurance, however, that fluctuations in interest rates and market liquidity conditions will not have an adverse impact on its and our earnings and cash flows. If any of the variety of instruments and strategies Cat Financial uses to hedge its exposure to these types of risk is ineffective, this may have an adverse impact on our earnings and cash flows. With respect to Insurance Services' investment activities, changes in the equity and bond markets could result in a decline in value of its investment portfolio, resulting in an unfavorable impact to earnings.
An increase in delinquencies, repossessions or net losses of Cat Financial customers could adversely affect its results.
Inherent in the operation of Cat Financial is the credit risk associated with its customers. The creditworthiness of each customer and the rate of delinquencies, repossessions and net losses on customer obligations are directly impacted by several factors, including relevant industry and economic conditions, the availability of capital, the experience and expertise of the customer's management team, commodity prices, political events and the sustained value of the underlying collateral. Any increase in delinquencies, repossessions and net losses on customer obligations could have a material adverse effect on Cat Financial's and our earnings and cash flows. In addition, although Cat Financial evaluates and adjusts its allowance for credit losses related to past due and non-performing receivables on a regular basis, adverse economic conditions or other factors that might cause deterioration of the financial health of its customers could change the timing and level of payments received and necessitate an increase in Cat Financial's estimated losses, which could also have a material adverse effect on Cat Financial's and our earnings and cash flows.
Currency exchange rate fluctuations affect our results of operations.
We conduct operations in many countries involving transactions denominated in a variety of currencies. We are subject to currency exchange rate risk to the extent that our costs are denominated in currencies other than those in which we earn revenues. Fluctuations in currency exchange rates have had, and will continue to have, an impact on our results as expressed in U.S. dollars. There can be no assurance that currency exchange rate fluctuations will not adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. While the use of currency hedging instruments may provide us with protection from adverse fluctuations in currency exchange rates, by utilizing these instruments we potentially forego the benefits that might result from favorable fluctuations in currency exchange rates. In addition, our outlooks do not assume fluctuations in currency exchange rates. Adverse fluctuations in currency exchange rates from the date of our outlooks could cause our actual results to differ materially from those anticipated in our outlooks and adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.
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We also face risks arising from the imposition of exchange controls and currency devaluations. Exchange controls may limit our ability to convert foreign currencies into U.S. dollars or to remit dividends and other payments by our foreign subsidiaries or businesses located in or conducted within a country imposing controls. Currency devaluations result in a diminished value of funds denominated in the currency of the country instituting the devaluation.
Restrictive covenants in our debt agreements could limit our financial and operating flexibility.
We maintain a number of credit facilities to support general corporate purposes (facilities) and have issued debt securities to manage liquidity and fund operations (debt securities). The agreements relating to a number of the facilities and the debt securities contain certain restrictive covenants applicable to us and certain subsidiaries, including Cat Financial. These covenants include maintaining a minimum consolidated net worth (defined as the consolidated shareholder's equity including preferred stock but excluding the pension and other post-retirement benefits balance within accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)), limitations on the incurrence of liens and certain restrictions on consolidation and merger. Cat Financial has also agreed under certain of these agreements not to exceed a certain leverage ratio (consolidated debt to consolidated net worth, calculated (1) on a monthly basis as the average of the leverage ratios determined on the last day of each of the six preceding calendar months and (2) at each December 31), to maintain a minimum interest coverage ratio (profit excluding income taxes, interest expense and net gain/(loss) from interest rate derivatives to interest expense, calculated at the end of each calendar quarter for the rolling four quarter period then most recently ended) and not to terminate, amend or modify its support agreement with us.
A breach of one or more of the covenants could result in adverse consequences that could negatively impact our business, results of operations and financial condition. These consequences may include the acceleration of amounts outstanding under certain of the facilities, triggering of an obligation to redeem certain debt securities, termination of existing unused commitments by our lenders, refusal by our lenders to extend further credit under one or more of the facilities or to enter into new facilities or the lowering or modification of our credit ratings or those of one or more of our subsidiaries.
Sustained increases in funding obligations under our pension plans may impair our liquidity or financial condition.
We maintain certain defined benefit pension plans for our employees, which impose on us certain funding obligations. In determining our future payment obligations under the plans, we assume certain rates of return on the plan assets and a certain level of future benefit payments. Significant adverse changes in credit or capital markets could result in actual rates of return being materially lower than projected and result in increased contribution requirements. Our assumptions for future benefit payments may also change over time and could be materially higher than originally projected. We expect to make contributions to our pension plans in the future, and may be required to make contributions that could be material. We may fund contributions through the use of cash on hand, the proceeds of borrowings, shares of our common stock or a combination of the foregoing, as permitted by applicable law. Our assumptions for future benefit payments may change over time and could be materially higher than projected. These factors could significantly increase our payment obligations under the plans, and as a result, adversely affect our business and overall financial condition.
LEGAL & REGULATORY RISKS
Our global operations are subject to a wide-range of trade and anti-corruption laws and regulations.
Due to the international scope of our operations, we are subject to a complex system of import- and export-related laws and regulations, including U.S. regulations issued by Customs and Border Protection, the Bureau of Industry and Security, the Office of Antiboycott Compliance, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls and the Office of Foreign Assets Control, as well as the counterparts of these agencies in other countries. Any alleged or actual violations may subject us to increased government scrutiny, investigation and civil and criminal penalties, and may limit our ability to import or export our products or to provide services outside the United States. Furthermore, embargoes and sanctions imposed by the U.S. and other governments restricting or prohibiting sales to specific persons or countries or based on product classification may expose us to potential criminal and civil sanctions. We cannot predict the nature, scope or effect of future regulatory requirements to which our operations might be subject or in certain locations the manner in which existing laws might be administered or interpreted.
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In addition, the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar foreign anti-corruption laws generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments or providing anything of value to improperly influence foreign government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business, or obtaining an unfair advantage. Recent years have seen a substantial increase in the global enforcement of anti-corruption laws. Our operations outside the United States, including in developing countries, expose us to the risk of such violations. Violations of anti-corruption laws or regulations by our employees, intermediaries acting on our behalf, or our joint venture partners may result in severe criminal or civil sanctions, could disrupt our business, and result in an adverse effect on our reputation, business and results of operations or financial condition.
International trade policies may impact demand for our products and our competitive position.
Government policies on international trade and investment such as import quotas, capital controls or tariffs, whether adopted by individual governments or addressed by regional trade blocs, can affect the demand for our products and services, impact the competitive position of our products or prevent us from being able to sell products in certain countries. The implementation of more restrictive trade policies, such as more detailed inspections, higher tariffs or new barriers to entry, in countries where we sell large quantities of products and services could negatively impact our business, results of operations and financial
condition. For example, a government's adoption of "buy national" policies or retaliation by another government against such policies could have a negative impact on our results of operations.
We may incur additional tax expense or become subject to additional tax exposure.
We are subject to income taxes in the United States and numerous other jurisdictions. Our future results of operations could be adversely affected by changes in the effective tax rate as a result of a change in the mix of earnings between U.S. and non-U.S. jurisdictions or among jurisdictions with differing statutory tax rates, changes in our overall profitability, changes in tax laws or treaties or in their application or interpretation, changes in tax rates, changes in generally accepted accounting principles, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, changes in the amount of earnings indefinitely reinvested in certain non-U.S. jurisdictions, the results of audits and examinations of previously filed tax returns and continuing assessments of our tax exposures. We are also subject to the continuous examination of our income tax returns by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service and other tax authorities. We regularly assess the likelihood of an adverse outcome resulting from these examinations. If our effective tax rates were to increase, or if the ultimate determination of our taxes owed is for an amount in excess of amounts previously accrued, our operating results, cash flows and financial condition could be adversely affected. For information regarding additional legal matters related to our taxes, please see Note 6 - "Income taxes" and Note 22 - "Environmental and legal matters" of Part II, Item 8 "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Costs associated with lawsuits or investigations or adverse rulings in enforcement or other legal proceedings may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
We are subject to a variety of legal proceedings and legal compliance risks in virtually every part of the world. We face risk of exposure to various types of claims, lawsuits and government investigations. We are involved in various claims and lawsuits related to product design, manufacture and performance liability (including claimed asbestos exposure), contracts, employment issues, environmental matters, intellectual property rights, tax, securities and other legal proceedings that arise in and outside of the ordinary course of our business. The industries in which we operate are also periodically reviewed or investigated by regulators, which could lead to enforcement actions, fines and penalties or the assertion of private litigation claims. It is not possible to predict with certainty the outcome of claims, investigations and lawsuits, and we could in the future incur judgments, fines or penalties or enter into settlements of lawsuits and claims that could have an adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations or financial condition in any particular period.
The global and diverse nature of our operations means that legal and compliance risks will continue to exist and additional legal proceedings and other contingencies, the outcome of which cannot be predicted with certainty, may arise from time to time. In addition, subsequent developments in legal proceedings may affect our assessment and estimates of loss contingencies recorded as a reserve and require us to make payments in excess of our reserves, which could have an adverse effect on our reputation, business and results of operations or financial condition.
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New regulations or changes in financial services regulation could adversely impact Caterpillar and Cat Financial.
Cat Financial's operations are highly regulated by governmental authorities in the locations where it operates, which can impose significant additional costs and/or restrictions on its business. In the United States, for example, certain Cat Financial activities are subject to the U.S. Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank), which includes extensive provisions regulating the financial services industry. As a result, Cat Financial has become and could continue to become subject to additional regulatory costs that could be significant and have an adverse effect on Cat Financial's and our results of operations and financial condition. Changes in regulations or additional regulations in the United States or internationally impacting the financial services industry could also add significant cost or operational constraints that might have an adverse effect on Cat Financial's and our results of operations and financial condition.
We are subject to stringent environmental laws and regulations that impose significant compliance costs.
Our facilities, operations and products are subject to increasingly stringent environmental laws and regulations globally, including laws and regulations governing emissions to noise, air, releases to soil and discharges to water and the generation, handling, storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of non-hazardous and hazardous waste materials. Some environmental laws impose strict, retroactive and joint and several liability for the remediation of the release of hazardous substances, even for conduct that was lawful at the time it occurred, or for the conduct of, or conditions caused by, prior operators, predecessors or other third parties. Failure to comply with environmental laws could expose us to penalties or clean-up costs, civil or criminal liability and sanctions on certain of our activities, as well as damage to property or natural resources. The potential liabilities, sanctions, damages and remediation efforts related to any non-compliance with such laws and regulations could negatively impact our ability to conduct our operations and our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, there can be no assurances that we will not be adversely affected by costs, liabilities or claims with respect to existing or subsequently acquired operations or under present laws and regulations or those that may be adopted or imposed in the future.
Environmental laws and regulations may change from time to time, as may related interpretations and other guidance. Changes in environmental laws or regulations could result in higher expenses and payments, and uncertainty relating to environmental laws or regulations may also affect how we conduct our operations and structure our investments and could limit our ability to enforce our rights. Changes in environmental and climate change laws or regulations, including laws relating to greenhouse gas emissions, could lead to new or additional investment in product designs and could increase environmental compliance expenditures. Changes in climate change concerns, or in the regulation of such concerns, including greenhouse gas emissions, could subject us to additional costs and restrictions, including increased energy and raw materials costs. If environmental laws or regulations are either changed or adopted and impose significant operational restrictions and compliance requirements upon us or our products, they could negatively impact our reputation, business, capital expenditures, results of operations, financial condition and competitive position.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
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Item 1C. Executive Officers of the Registrant.
Principal positions held during the
Present Caterpillar Inc. position past five years if other than
Name and age and date of initial election Caterpillar Inc. position currently held
Andrew R.J. Bonfield (58) Chief Financial Officer (2018) Group Chief Financial Officer for a
multinational electricity and gas utility company (2010-2018)
Denise C. Johnson (54) Group President (2016) Vice President (2012-2016)
Anthony D. Fassino (50) Group President (2021) Vice President, Building Construction
Products (2018-2020), Director of
Worldwide Forestry Products (2016-2018)
Cheryl C. Johnson (60) Chief Human Resources Officer (2017) Executive Vice President of Human
Resources for a global multi-industry aerospace, defense and industrial manufacturing company (2012-2017)
Item 2. Properties.
Caterpillar's operations are highly integrated. Although the majority of our plants are involved primarily in production relating to our Construction Industries, Resource Industries or Energy & Transportation segments, several plants are involved in manufacturing relating to more than one business segment. In addition, several plants reported in our financial statements under the All Other segment are involved in the manufacturing of components that are used in the assembly of products for more than one business segment. Caterpillar's parts distribution centers are involved in the storage and distribution of parts for Construction Industries, Resource Industries and Energy & Transportation. The research and development activities carried on at our Technical Centers in Aurora and Mossville, Illinois involve products for Construction Industries, Resource Industries and Energy & Transportation.
We believe the properties we own to be generally well maintained and adequate for present use. Through planned capital expenditures, we expect these properties to remain adequate for future needs. Properties we lease are covered by leases expiring over terms of generally one to ten years. We do not anticipate any difficulty in retaining occupancy of any leased facilities, either by renewing leases prior to expiration or by replacing them with equivalent leased facilities.
Headquarters and Other Key Offices
Our corporate headquarters is in a leased office located in Deerfield, Illinois. Our Financial Products business is headquartered
in offices in Nashville, Tennessee. Additional key offices are located inside and outside the United States.
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Technical Center, Training Centers, Demonstration Areas and Proving Grounds
We operate Technical Centers located in Aurora and Mossville, Illinois; Wuxi, China; and Chennai, India. Our demonstration centers are located in Tinaja Hills, Arizona; Edwards, Illinois; Chichibu, Japan and Malaga, Spain. We have various other technical and training centers, demonstration areas and proving grounds located both inside and outside the United States.
Parts Distribution Centers
Distribution of our parts is conducted from parts distribution centers inside and outside the United States. We operate parts distribution centers in the following locations: Arvin, California; Denver, Colorado; Miami, Florida; Atlanta, Georgia; Morton, Illinois; St. Paul, Minnesota; Clayton, Ohio; York, Pennsylvania; Waco, Texas; Spokane, Washington; Melbourne, Australia; Queensland, Australia; Grimbergen, Belgium; Piracicaba, Brazil; Shanghai, China; Sagami, Japan; San Luis Potosi, Mexico; Singapore, Republic of Singapore; Moscow, Russia; Johannesburg, South Africa; and Dubai, United Arab Emirates. We also own or lease other facilities that support our distribution activities.
Remanufacturing and Components
Remanufacturing of our products is reported in our Energy & Transportation segment and is conducted primarily at the facilities in the following locations: Franklin, Indiana; Bogor, Indonesia; Corinth, Mississippi; Prentiss County, Mississippi; West Fargo, North Dakota; Piracicaba, Brazil; Shanghai, China; and Nuevo Laredo, Mexico.
Component manufacturing is reported in the All Other segment and is conducted primarily at facilities in the following locations: East Peoria, Illinois; Mapleton, Illinois; Peoria, Illinois; Bogor, Indonesia; Menominee, Michigan; Boonville, Missouri; West Plains, Missouri; Goldsboro, North Carolina; Sumter, South Carolina; Tianjin, China; Xuzhou, China; Atessa, Italy; Bazzano, Italy; Frosinone, Italy; San Eusebio, Italy; Ramos Arizpe, Mexico; Pyeongtaek, South Korea; and Skinningrove, United Kingdom.
We also lease or own other facilities that support our remanufacturing and component manufacturing activities.
Manufacturing of products for our Construction Industries, Resource Industries and Energy & Transportation segments is conducted primarily at the locations listed below. These facilities are believed to be suitable for their intended purposes, with adequate capacities for current and projected needs for existing products.
Our principal manufacturing facilities include those used by the following segments in the following locations:
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Segment U.S. Facilities Facilities Outside the U.S.
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Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
Certain legal proceedings in which we are involved are discussed in Note 22 - "Environmental and legal matters" of Part II, Item 8 "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" and should be considered an integral part of Part I, Item 3 "Legal Proceedings", which is hereby incorporated by reference.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Common Stock (NYSE: CAT)
Listing Information: Caterpillar common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange in the United States, and on stock exchanges in France and Switzerland.
Number of Shareholders: Shareholders of record at the end of 2020 totaled 23,299, compared with 25,985 at the end of 2019.
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Performance Graph: Total Cumulative Shareholder Return for Five-Year Period Ending December 31, 2020
The graph below shows the cumulative shareholder return assuming an investment of $100 on December 31, 2015, and reinvestment of dividends issued thereafter.
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Non-U.S. Employee Stock Purchase Plans
As of December 31, 2020, we had 28 employee stock purchase plans (the "EIP Plans") administered outside the United States for our non-U.S. employees, which had approximately 13,000 active participants in the aggregate. During the fourth quarter of 2020, approximately 91,000 shares of Caterpillar common stock were purchased by the EIP Plans pursuant to the terms of such plans.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
In July 2018, the Board approved a share repurchase authorization of up to $10.0 billion of Caterpillar common stock effective January 1, 2019, with no expiration (the "2018 Authorization"). As of December 31, 2020, approximately $4.8 billion remained available under the 2018 Authorization. Due to current economic uncertainty, we temporarily suspended our share repurchase program during the second half of 2020. The existing share repurchase program remains authorized by the Board, and we may resume share repurchases in the future at any time depending upon market conditions, our capital needs and other factors.
1 Profit (loss) attributable to common shareholders.
2 Computed on weighted-average number of shares outstanding.
3 Computed on weighted-average number of shares outstanding diluted by assumed exercise of stock-based compensation awards, using the treasury stock method. In 2016, the assumed exercise of stock-based compensation awards was not considered because the impact would be antidilutive.
4 Represents profit (loss) divided by average shareholders' equity (beginning of year shareholders' equity plus end of year shareholders' equity divided by two).
Additional information required by Item 6 is included in Part II, Item 7 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations."
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Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
This Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations should be read in conjunction with our discussion of cautionary statements and significant risks to the company's business under Item 1A. Risk Factors of the 2020 Form 10-K.
Our sales and revenues for 2020 were $41.748 billion, a decrease of $12.052 billion, or 22 percent, compared with $53.800 billion in 2019. The decline was due to lower sales volume driven by lower end-user demand for equipment and services and the impact from changes in dealer inventories across the three primary segments. Sales were lower across all regions and in the three primary segments. Profit per share was $5.46 in 2020, compared with profit per share of $10.74 in 2019. Profit was $2.998 billion in 2020, compared with $6.093 billion in 2019. The decrease was primarily due to lower sales volume, unfavorable price realization, lower profit from Financial Products and higher restructuring costs, partially offset by lower selling, general and administrative (SG&A) and research and development (R&D) expenses and favorable manufacturing costs.
Fourth-quarter 2020 sales and revenues were $11.235 billion, down $1.909 billion, or 15 percent, from $13.144 billion in the fourth quarter of 2019. Fourth-quarter 2020 profit was $1.42 per share, compared with $1.97 per share in the fourth quarter of 2019. Fourth-quarter 2020 profit was $780 million, compared with $1.098 billion in 2019.
Highlights for 2020 include:
1At statutory tax rates.
Certain amounts may not add due to rounding.
Response to COVID-19 and Global Business Conditions
We continue to implement safeguards in our facilities to protect team members, including increased frequency of cleaning and disinfecting, social distancing practices and other measures consistent with specific governmental requirements and guidance from health authorities. At the end of 2020, globally and across our three primary segments, nearly all of our primary production facilities continued to operate. This continues to fluctuate as conditions warrant, including the pace of economic recovery and the potential for additional COVID-related temporary shutdowns. We have continued to take actions to reduce costs and prioritize our spending to provide for investment in services and expanded offerings, key elements of our strategy for profitable growth, which was introduced in 2017.
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2020 COMPARED WITH 2019
CONSOLIDATED SALES AND REVENUES
The chart above graphically illustrates reasons for the change in consolidated sales and revenues between 2019 (at left) and 2020 (at right). Caterpillar management utilizes these charts internally to visually communicate with the company's Board of Directors and employees.
Total sales and revenues for 2020 were $41.748 billion, a decrease of $12.052 billion, or 22 percent, compared with $53.800 billion in 2019. The decline was due to lower sales volume driven by lower end-user demand for equipment and services and the impact from changes in dealer inventories across the three primary segments. Dealers decreased machine and engine inventories about $2.9 billion during 2020, compared with an increase of about $800 million during 2019.
Sales were lower across all regions and in the three primary segments.
North America sales declined 31 percent driven by lower end-user demand and the impact from changes in dealer inventories. Dealers decreased inventories during 2020, compared with an increase during 2019.
Sales decreased 28 percent in Latin America due to lower sales volume across the region, driven by lower end-user demand and the impact from changes in dealer inventories. In addition, sales were lower due to unfavorable currency impacts from a weaker Brazilian real. Dealers decreased inventories during 2020 and increased inventories during 2019.
EAME sales decreased 12 percent due to lower sales volume in most countries across the region, driven by lower end-user demand and the impact from changes in dealer inventories. Dealers decreased inventories more during 2020 than 2019.
Asia/Pacific sales decreased 16 percent due to lower demand across the region. Lower demand was driven by the impact from changes in dealer inventories and lower end-user demand. Dealers decreased inventories during 2020 and increased inventories during 2019.
Dealers decreased machine and engine inventories about $2.9 billion during 2020, compared with an increase of about $800 million during 2019. Dealers are independent, and the reasons for changes in their inventory levels vary, including their expectations of future demand and product delivery times. Dealers' demand expectations take into account seasonal changes, macroeconomic conditions, machine rental rates and other factors. Delivery times can vary based on availability of product from Caterpillar factories and product distribution centers. We do not expect a significant dealer inventory reduction in 2021.
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Sales and Revenues by Geographic Region
1 Includes revenues from Machinery, Energy & Transportation of $362 million and $524 million in 2020 and 2019, respectively.
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CONSOLIDATED OPERATING PROFIT
The chart above graphically illustrates reasons for the change in consolidated operating profit between 2019 (at left) and 2020 (at right). Caterpillar management utilizes these charts internally to visually communicate with the company's Board of Directors and employees. The bar entitled Other includes consolidating adjustments and Machinery, Energy & Transportation other operating (income) expenses.
Operating profit was $4.553 billion in 2020, a decrease of $3.737 billion, or 45 percent, compared with $8.290 billion in 2019. The decrease was due to lower sales volume and unfavorable price realization, partially offset by lower SG&A/R&D expenses and favorable manufacturing costs.
Lower SG&A/R&D expenses reflected reduced short-term incentive compensation expense and other cost reductions related to lower sales volumes.
Favorable manufacturing costs were mostly driven by lower period manufacturing costs and material costs, partially offset by higher warranty expense. Period manufacturing costs declined primarily due to a reduction in short-term incentive compensation expense and other cost reductions related to lower sales volumes.
Short-term incentive compensation expense is directly related to financial and operational performance, measured against targets set annually. In the first quarter, in response to the continued global economic uncertainty due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Caterpillar suspended 2020 short-term incentive compensation plans for many employees and all senior executives. As a result, no short-term incentive compensation expense was recognized during 2020, compared with about $700 million during 2019.
For 2021, we expect short-term incentive compensation expense will be about $900 million.
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Other Profit/Loss and Tax Items
Other income/expense in 2020 was expense of $44 million, compared with expense of $57 million in 2019. The change was due to a higher expected return on pension and other postretirement benefit (OPEB) costs that include lower mark-to-market losses for remeasurement of pension and OPEB plans, partially offset by unfavorable impacts from foreign currency exchange gains (losses); lower investment and interest income; and the absence of realized gains that occurred in 2019.
The provision for income taxes for 2020 also included the following:
◦ A tax benefit of $80 million to adjust prior year U.S. taxes including the impact of regulations received in 2020 compared to $178 million in 2019.
◦ A tax benefit of $82 million related to $383 million of pension and OPEB mark-to-market losses in 2020, compared to a $105 million tax benefit related to $468 million of mark-to-market losses in 2019.
◦ A tax benefit of $49 million in 2020, compared with $41 million in 2019, for the settlement of stock-based compensation awards with associated tax deductions in excess of cumulative U.S. GAAP compensation expense.
Construction Industries' total sales were $16.918 billion in 2020, a decrease of $5.731 billion, or 25 percent, compared with $22.649 billion in 2019. The decrease was due to lower sales volume, driven by lower end-user demand and the impact from changes in dealer inventories. Dealers decreased inventories during 2020, compared with an increase during 2019.
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Construction Industries' profit was $2.373 billion in 2020, a decrease of $1.558 billion, or 40 percent, compared with $3.931 billion in 2019. The decrease was mainly due to lower sales volume and unfavorable price realization primarily due to the geographic mix of sales, partially offset by favorable manufacturing costs and lower SG&A/R&D expenses. Favorable manufacturing costs were primarily due to lower period manufacturing costs, material costs and favorable cost absorption, partially offset by higher warranty expense. Cost absorption was favorable as inventory decreased in 2019, compared with inventory that was about flat in 2020. Lower SG&A/R&D expenses and period manufacturing costs both reflected a reduction in short-term incentive compensation expense and other cost reductions related to lower sales volumes.
Construction Industries' profit as a percent of total sales was 14.0 percent in 2020, compared with 17.4 percent in 2019. Resource Industries
Resource Industries' total sales were $7.906 billion in 2020, a decrease of $2.370 billion, or 23 percent, compared with $10.276 billion in 2019. The decrease was due to lower sales volume, driven by lower end-user demand for equipment and aftermarket parts and the impact from changes in dealer inventories. Dealers decreased inventories during 2020, compared with an increase during 2019. Lower end-user demand was primarily driven by equipment supporting heavy construction and quarry and aggregates. Mining equipment end-user demand and aftermarket parts demand were also down in 2020, though to a lesser extent. Mining equipment sales were impacted by mining company delays in capital expenditures due to pricing in certain commodities and overall economic uncertainty.
Resource Industries' profit was $896 million in 2020, a decrease of $733 million, or 45 percent, compared with $1.629 billion in 2019. The decrease was mainly due to lower sales volume, partially offset by favorable manufacturing costs. Favorable manufacturing costs were mostly due to lower period manufacturing costs and material costs, partially offset by the unfavorable impact of cost absorption. Lower period manufacturing costs were driven by lower short-term incentive compensation expense, other cost-reduction actions implemented in response to lower sales volumes and the benefits of prior restructuring programs. Cost absorption was unfavorable as inventory increased during 2019, compared with inventory levels that were about flat during 2020.
Resource Industries' profit as a percent of total sales was 11.3 percent for 2020, compared with 15.9 percent for 2019. Energy & Transportation
Energy & Transportation's total sales were $17.470 billion in 2020, a decrease of $4.627 billion, or 21 percent, compared with $22.097 billion in 2019. Sales declined across all applications and inter-segment engine sales.
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Energy & Transportation's profit was $2.405 billion in 2020, a decrease of $1.505 billion, or 38 percent, compared with $3.910 billion in 2019. The decrease was due to lower sales volume, partially offset by lower SG&A/R&D expenses and manufacturing costs. SG&A/R&D expenses and manufacturing costs were both impacted by a reduction in short-term incentive compensation expense and other cost reductions related to lower sales volumes. In addition, segment profit was unfavorably impacted by increased restructuring costs and certain asset impairments.
Energy & Transportation's profit as a percent of total sales was 13.8 percent in 2020, compared with 17.7 percent in 2019. Financial Products Segment
Financial Products' segment revenues were $3.044 billion in 2020, a decrease of $390 million, or 11 percent, from 2019. The decrease was primarily because of lower average financing rates across all regions and lower average earning assets in North America.
Financial Products' segment profit was $590 million in 2020, compared with $832 million in 2019. The decrease was due to higher provision for credit losses at Cat Financial, lower average earning assets, an unfavorable impact from equity securities in Insurance Services, lower net yield on average earning assets and an unfavorable impact from returned or repossessed equipment. These unfavorable impacts were partially offset by a reduction in SG&A expenses primarily due to lower incentive compensation.
At the end of 2020, past dues at Cat Financial were 3.49 percent, compared with 3.14 percent at the end of 2019. Past dues increased primarily due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, partially offset by decreases in the Caterpillar Power Finance, EAME and Latin American portfolios. Write-offs, net of recoveries, were $222 million for 2020, compared with $237 million for 2019. As of December 31, 2020, Cat Financial's allowance for credit losses totaled $479 million, or 1.77 percent of finance receivables, compared with $424 million, or 1.50 percent of finance receivables at December 31, 2019.
Corporate Items and Eliminations
Expense for corporate items and eliminations was $1.434 billion in 2020, a decrease of $151 million from 2019. The decrease was primarily due to segment reporting methodology differences and lower corporate costs, partially offset by increased pension and OPEB costs.
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FOURTH QUARTER 2020 COMPARED WITH FOURTH QUARTER 2019
The chart above graphically illustrates reasons for the change in consolidated sales and revenues between the fourth quarter of 2019 (at left) and the fourth quarter of 2020 (at right). Caterpillar management utilizes these charts internally to visually communicate with the company's Board of Directors and employees.
Total sales and revenues for the fourth quarter of 2020 were $11.235 billion, a decrease of $1.909 billion, or 15 percent, compared with $13.144 billion in the fourth quarter of 2019. The decline was mostly due to lower sales volume driven by lower end-user demand for equipment and services and the impact from changes in dealer inventories. Dealers decreased inventories more during the fourth quarter of 2020 than during the fourth quarter of 2019.
Sales were lower across the three primary segments, with the largest decline in Energy & Transportation.
The largest sales decrease was in North America, which declined 22 percent due to lower sales volume driven by lower end-user demand and the impact from changes in dealer inventories. Dealers decreased inventories more during the fourth quarter of 2020 than during the fourth quarter of 2019.
Sales decreased 9 percent in Latin America primarily due to the unfavorable currency impacts from a weaker Brazilian real.
EAME sales decreased 11 percent primarily due to lower end-user demand for equipment and aftermarket parts, partially offset by favorable currency impacts from a stronger euro and price realization.
Asia/Pacific sales decreased 8 percent primarily due to lower sales volume and unfavorable price realization, partially offset by favorable currency impacts from a stronger Australian dollar and Chinese yuan. Sales volume declined due to lower end-user demand and the impact from changes in dealer inventories. Dealers decreased inventories during the fourth quarter of 2020, compared with dealer inventories that were about flat during the fourth quarter of 2019.
Dealers decreased machine and engine inventories about $1.100 billion during the fourth quarter of 2020, compared with a decrease of about $700 million during the fourth quarter of 2019. Dealers are independent, and the reasons for changes in their inventory levels vary, including their expectations of future demand and product delivery times. Dealers' demand expectations take into account seasonal changes, macroeconomic conditions, machine rental rates and other factors. Delivery times can vary based on availability of product from Caterpillar factories and product distribution centers.
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Sales and Revenues by Geographic Region
1 Includes revenues from Machinery, Energy & Transportation of $88 million and $126 million in the three months ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
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CONSOLIDATED OPERATING PROFIT
The chart above graphically illustrates reasons for the change in consolidated operating profit between the fourth quarter of 2019 (at left) and the fourth quarter of 2020 (at right). Caterpillar management utilizes these charts internally to visually communicate with the company's Board of Directors and employees. The bar entitled Other includes consolidating adjustments and Machinery, Energy & Transportation other operating (income) expenses.
Operating profit for the fourth quarter of 2020 was $1.380 billion, a decrease of $470 million, or 25 percent, compared with $1.850 billion in the fourth quarter of 2019. The decrease was primarily the result of lower sales volume partially offset by lower manufacturing costs and SG&A/R&D expenses. In addition, operating profit declined due to lower profit from Financial Products.
Manufacturing costs were lower due to favorable impact from cost absorption, lower material and period manufacturing costs, partially offset by higher warranty expense. Cost absorption was favorable as inventory decreased more in the fourth quarter of 2019 than in the fourth quarter of 2020.
SG&A/R&D expenses and period manufacturing costs benefited from reduced short-term incentive compensation expense and other cost reductions related to lower sales volumes, partially offset by higher labor and benefits costs.
Short-term incentive compensation expense is directly related to financial and operational performance, measured against targets set annually. In the first quarter, in response to the continued global economic uncertainty due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Caterpillar suspended 2020 short-term incentive compensation plans for many employees and all senior executives. As a result, no short-term incentive compensation expense was recognized in the fourth quarter of 2020, compared with about $120 million in the fourth quarter of 2019.
Operating profit margin was 12.3 percent for the fourth quarter of 2020, compared with 14.1 percent for the fourth quarter of 2019.
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Other Profit/Loss and Tax Items
The provision for income taxes for the fourth quarter of 2020 also included the following:
◦ A tax benefit of $96 million for the change from the third-quarter estimated annual tax rate of 31 percent, compared to a $64 million tax benefit for the reduction in the annual effective tax rate in the fourth quarter of 2019.
◦ A tax benefit of $92 million related to $438 million of pension and OPEB mark-to-market losses in the fourth quarter of 2020, compared to a $105 million tax benefit related to $468 million of mark-to-market losses in the fourth quarter of 2019.
◦ A tax benefit of $28 million in the fourth quarter of 2020, compared to $13 million in the fourth quarter of 2019, for the settlement of stock-based compensation awards with associated tax deductions in excess of cumulative U.S. GAAP compensation expense.
Construction Industries' total sales were $4.508 billion in the fourth quarter of 2020, a decrease of $512 million, or 10 percent, compared with $5.020 billion in the fourth quarter of 2019. The decrease was due to lower sales volume, driven by the impact from changes in dealer inventories and slightly lower end-user demand. Dealers decreased inventories more during the fourth quarter of 2020 than during the fourth quarter of 2019.
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Construction Industries' profit was $630 million in the fourth quarter of 2020, a decrease of $29 million, or 4 percent, compared with $659 million in the fourth quarter of 2019. The decrease was mainly due to lower sales volume and higher warranty expense, partially offset by favorable impact of cost absorption and lower SG&A/R&D expenses. Cost absorption was favorable as inventory increased during the fourth quarter of 2020, compared with a decrease during the fourth quarter of 2019. SG&A/R&D expenses benefited from reduced short-term incentive compensation expense and other cost reductions related to lower sales volumes.
Construction Industries' profit as a percent of total sales was 14.0 percent in the fourth quarter of 2020, compared with 13.1 percent in the fourth quarter of 2019.
Resource Industries' total sales were $2.180 billion in the fourth quarter of 2020, a decrease of $215 million, or 9 percent, compared with $2.395 billion in the fourth quarter of 2019. The decrease was due to lower end-user demand for equipment and aftermarket parts. End-user demand was lower for heavy construction and quarry and aggregates and was also lower in mining, but to a lesser extent.
Resource Industries' profit was $273 million in the fourth quarter of 2020, an increase of $12 million, or 5 percent, compared with $261 million in the fourth quarter of 2019. The increase was mainly due to favorable manufacturing costs and lower SG&A/R&D expenses which was mostly offset by lower sales volume. Favorable manufacturing costs reflected favorable variable labor and burden, impact of cost absorption, period manufacturing costs and material costs. Cost absorption was favorable as inventory decreased in the fourth quarter of 2019 compared with being about flat in the fourth quarter of 2020. SG&A/R&D expenses, along with period manufacturing costs, benefited from lower short-term incentive compensation expense, other cost-reduction actions implemented and benefits from prior restructuring programs.
Resource Industries' profit as a percent of total sales was 12.5 percent in the fourth quarter of 2020, compared with 10.9 percent in the fourth quarter of 2019.
Energy & Transportation
Energy & Transportation's total sales were $4.811 billion in the fourth quarter of 2020, a decrease of $1.138 billion, or 19 percent, compared with $5.949 billion in the fourth quarter of 2019. Sales declined across all applications.
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Energy & Transportation's profit was $687 million in the fourth quarter of 2020, a decrease of $478 million, or 41 percent, compared with $1.165 billion in the fourth quarter of 2019. The decrease was due to lower sales volume, partially offset by lower SG&A/R&D expenses and period manufacturing costs. SG&A/R&D expenses and period manufacturing costs were mostly impacted by a reduction in short-term incentive compensation expense and other cost-reduction actions implemented in response to lower sales volumes.
Energy & Transportation's profit as a percent of total sales was 14.3 percent in the fourth quarter of 2020, compared with 19.6 percent in the fourth quarter of 2019.
Financial Products Segment
Financial Products' segment revenues were $743 million in the fourth quarter of 2020, a decrease of $103 million, or 12 percent, from the fourth quarter of 2019. The decrease was primarily because of lower average financing rates across all regions and lower average earning assets in North America.
Financial Products' segment profit was $195 million in the fourth quarter of 2020, compared with $210 million in the fourth quarter of 2019. The decrease was primarily due to higher provision for credit losses, an unfavorable impact from returned or repossessed equipment and lower average earning assets at Cat Financial. These unfavorable impacts were partially offset by a reduction in SG&A expenses primarily due to lower short-term incentive compensation and a favorable impact from equity securities in Insurance Services.
Corporate Items and Eliminations
Expense for corporate items and eliminations was $328 million in the fourth quarter of 2020, a decrease of $3 million from the fourth quarter of 2019.
2019 COMPARED WITH 2018
For discussions related to the consolidated sales and revenue and consolidated operating profit between 2019 and 2018, refer to Part II, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, which was filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission on February 19, 2020.
We expect to incur about $400 million of restructuring costs in 2021. We expect that prior restructuring actions will result in an incremental benefit to operating costs, primarily Costs of goods sold and SG&A expenses of about $150 million in 2021 compared with 2020.
Additional information related to restructuring costs is included in Note 24 - "Restructuring Costs" of Part II, Item 8 "Financial Statements and Supplemental Data."
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
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LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
We generate significant capital resources from operating activities, which are the primary source of funding for our ME&T operations. Funding for these businesses is also available from commercial paper and long-term debt issuances. Financial Products' operations are funded primarily from commercial paper, term debt issuances and collections from its existing portfolio. During 2020, we experienced favorable liquidity conditions globally in both our ME&T and Financial Products' operations. On a consolidated basis, we ended 2020 with $9.35 billion of cash, an increase of $1.07 billion from year-end 2019. We intend to maintain a strong cash and liquidity position.
Consolidated operating cash flow for 2020 was $6.33 billion, down $585 million compared to 2019. The decrease was primarily due to profit adjusted for non-cash items, including lower accruals for short-term incentive compensation and postretirement benefits. Partially offsetting lower profit were the absence of a discretionary pension contribution, reduced working capital requirements and lower payments for short-term incentive compensation during 2020. Within working capital, changes to accounts receivable and accounts payable favorably impacted cash flow, but were partially offset by unfavorable changes in accrued expenses, inventories and customer advances. See further discussion of operating cash flow under ME&T and Financial Products.
Total debt as of December 31, 2020 was $37.16 billion, a decrease of $494 million from year-end 2019. Debt related to Financial Products decreased $2.51 billion, while debt related to ME&T increased $2.02 billion in 2020. The increase was due to the issuance of new debt to maintain our strong financial position and increase liquidity. In April 2020, we issued $800 million of ten-year bonds at 2.6 percent and $1.2 billion of 30-year bonds at 3.25 percent.
We have three global credit facilities with a syndicate of banks totaling $10.50 billion (Credit Facility) available in the aggregate to both Caterpillar and Cat Financial for general liquidity purposes. Based on management's allocation decision, which can be revised from time to time, the portion of the Credit Facility available to ME&T as of December 31, 2020 was $2.75 billion. Information on our Credit Facility is as follows:
At December 31, 2020, Caterpillar's consolidated net worth was $15.41 billion, which was above the $9.00 billion required under the Credit Facility. The consolidated net worth is defined as the consolidated shareholder's equity including preferred stock but excluding the pension and other postretirement benefits balance within Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss).
At December 31, 2020, Cat Financial's covenant interest coverage ratio was 1.72 to 1. This is above the 1.15 to 1 minimum ratio, calculated as (1) profit excluding income taxes, interest expense and net gain/(loss) from interest rate derivatives to (2) interest expense calculated at the end of each calendar quarter for the rolling four quarter period then most recently ended, required by the Credit Facility.
In addition, at December 31, 2020, Cat Financial's six-month covenant leverage ratio was 6.74 to 1 and year-end covenant leverage ratio was 6.95 to 1. This is below the maximum ratio of debt to net worth of 10 to 1, calculated (1) on a monthly basis as the average of the leverage ratios determined on the last day of each of the six preceding calendar months and (2) at each December 31, required by the Credit Facility.
In the event Caterpillar or Cat Financial does not meet one or more of their respective financial covenants under the Credit Facility in the future (and are unable to obtain a consent or waiver), the syndicate of banks may terminate the commitments allocated to the party that does not meet its covenants. Additionally, in such event, certain of Cat Financial's other lenders under other loan agreements where similar financial covenants or cross default provisions are applicable, may, at their election, choose to pursue remedies under those loan agreements, including accelerating the repayment of outstanding borrowings. At December 31, 2020, there were no borrowings under the Credit Facility.
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Our total credit commitments and available credit as of December 31, 2020 were:
The other consolidated credit lines with banks as of December 31, 2020 totaled $3.18 billion. These committed and uncommitted credit lines, which may be eligible for renewal at various future dates or have no specified expiration date, are used primarily by our subsidiaries for local funding requirements. Caterpillar or Cat Financial may guarantee subsidiary borrowings under these lines.
Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 global pandemic, Caterpillar has taken actions to maintain our strong financial position and increase liquidity. During 2020, we raised $2.0 billion of incremental cash by issuing $800 million of ten-year bonds at 2.6 percent and $1.2 billion of 30-year bonds at 3.25 percent. We also entered into an incremental $3.9 billion short-term credit facility that was set to expire on December 31, 2020 and registered for $4.2 billion in commercial paper support programs available in the United States and Canada. In addition, Cat Financial issued $3.25 billion of medium-term notes to refinance maturing medium-term notes and supplement its liquidity position. Due to our strong liquidity position, we chose to early terminate the $3.9 billion short-term credit facility on September 2, 2020. We also do not have any outstanding borrowings under either commercial paper support program as of the date of this filing.
We receive debt ratings from the major credit rating agencies. Moody's rates our debt as "low-A", while Fitch and S&P maintain a "mid-A" debt rating. This split rating has not had a material impact on our borrowing costs or our overall financial health. However, a downgrade of our credit ratings by any of the major credit rating agencies would result in increased borrowing costs and could make access to certain credit markets more difficult. In the event economic conditions deteriorate such that access to debt markets becomes unavailable, ME&T's operations would rely on cash flow from operations, use of existing cash balances, borrowings from Cat Financial and access to our Credit Facility. Our Financial Products' operations would rely on cash flow from its existing portfolio, existing cash balances, access to our Credit Facility and other credit line facilities of Cat Financial and potential borrowings from Caterpillar. In addition, we maintain a support agreement with Cat Financial, which requires Caterpillar to remain the sole owner of Cat Financial and may, under certain circumstances, require Caterpillar to make payments to Cat Financial should Cat Financial fail to maintain certain financial ratios.
We facilitate voluntary supply chain finance programs (the "Programs") through participating financial institutions. The Programs are available to a wide range of suppliers and allows them the option to manage their cash flow. We are not a party to the agreements between the participating financial institutions and the suppliers in connection with the Programs. The range of payment terms we negotiate with our suppliers is consistent, irrespective of whether a supplier participates in the Programs. The amounts payable to participating financial institutions for suppliers who voluntarily participate in the Programs and included in accounts payable in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position were $533 million and $575 million at December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. The amounts settled through the Programs and paid to participating financial institutions were $3.2 billion and $4.1 billion in 2020 and 2019, respectively. We account for payments made under the Programs, the same as our other accounts payable, as a reduction to our cash flows from operations. We do not believe that changes in the availability of supply chain financing will have a significant impact on our liquidity.
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Machinery, Energy & Transportation
Net cash provided by operating activities was $4.05 billion in 2020, compared with $4.87 billion in 2019. The decrease was primarily due to lower profit in 2020 adjusted for non-cash items, which included lower accruals for short-term compensation payments and postretirement benefits. Partially offsetting lower profit were the absence of a discretionary pension contribution, lower payments for short-term incentive compensation and reduced working capital requirements. Within working capital, changes to accounts payable and accounts receivable favorably impacted cash flow, but were partially offset by changes in accrued expenses, inventories and customer advances.
Net cash used for investing activities in 2020 was $1.34 billion, compared with net cash used of $48 million in 2019. The change was primarily due to increased intercompany lending with Financial Products during 2020.
Net cash used for financing activities during 2020 was $1.18 billion, compared with net cash used of $4.48 billion in 2019. The change was primarily due to a decrease in share repurchases of $2.92 billion and greater proceeds from the issuance of debt of $512 million compared to 2019.
While our short-term priorities for the use of cash may vary from time to time as business needs and conditions dictate, our long-term cash deployment strategy is focused on the following priorities. Our top priority is to maintain a strong financial position in support of a Mid-A rating. Next, we intend to fund operational requirements and commitments. Then, we intend to fund priorities that profitably grow the company and return capital to shareholders through dividend growth and share repurchases. Additional information on cash deployment is as follows:
Strong financial position - Our top priority is to maintain a strong financial position in support of a mid-A rating. We track a diverse group of financial metrics that focus on liquidity, leverage, cash flow and margins which align with our cash deployment actions and the various methodologies used by the major credit rating agencies.
Operational excellence and commitments - Capital expenditures were $994 million during 2020, compared to $1.07 billion in 2019. We expect ME&T's capital expenditures in 2021 to be between $1.0 billion and $1.2 billion. We made $262 million of contributions to our pension and other postretirement benefit plans during 2020. By comparison, we made $1.81 billion of contributions to our pension and other postretirement plans in 2019, including a $1.5 billion discretionary contribution made to our U.S. pension plans. We expect to make approximately $310 million of contributions to our pension and OPEB plans in 2021.
Fund strategic growth initiatives and return capital to shareholders - We intend to utilize our liquidity and debt capacity to fund targeted investments that drive long-term profitable growth focused in the areas of expanded offerings and services, including acquisitions.
As part of our capital allocation strategy, ME&T free cash flow is a liquidity measure we use to determine the cash generated and available for financing activities including debt repayments, dividends and share repurchases. We define ME&T free cash flow as cash from ME&T operations excluding discretionary pension and other postretirement benefit plan contributions less capital expenditures. A goal of our capital allocation strategy is to return substantially all ME&T free cash flow to shareholders through the cycles in the form of dividends and share repurchases, while maintaining our mid-A rating.
Our share repurchase plans are subject to the company's cash deployment priorities and are evaluated on an ongoing basis considering the financial condition of the company and the economic outlook, corporate cash flow, the company's liquidity needs and the health and stability of global credit markets. The timing and amount of future repurchases may vary depending on market conditions and investing priorities. In July 2018, the Board of Directors approved an authorization to repurchase up to $10 billion of Caterpillar common stock (the 2018 Authorization) effective January 1, 2019, with no expiration. In 2020, we repurchased $1.13 billion of Caterpillar common stock, with $4.82 billion remaining under the 2018 Authorization as of December 31, 2020. Caterpillar's basic shares outstanding as of December 31, 2020 were approximately 545 million. Due to current economic uncertainty, we have temporarily suspended our share repurchase program in 2020. The existing share repurchase program remains authorized by the Board, and we may resume share repurchases in the future at any time depending upon market conditions, our capital needs and other factors.
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Each quarter, our Board of Directors reviews the company's dividend for the applicable quarter. The Board evaluates the financial condition of the company and considers the economic outlook, corporate cash flow, the company's liquidity needs, and the health and stability of global credit markets to determine whether to maintain or change the quarterly dividend. In December 2020, the Board of Directors approved maintaining our quarterly dividend representing $1.03 per share and we continue to expect our strong financial position to support the dividend. Dividends paid totaled $2.24 billion in 2020.
Financial Products operating cash flow was $1.27 billion in 2020, compared with $1.50 billion in 2019. Net cash provided by investing activities was $791 million in 2020, compared with net cash used for investing activities of $414 million in 2019. The change was primarily due to lower additions to finance receivables and other portfolio related activity. Net cash used for financing activities was $2.50 billion in 2020, compared with $991 million in 2019. The change was primarily due to lower portfolio funding requirements, partially offset by the increase in intercompany borrowings from ME&T.
The company has committed cash outflow related to long-term debt, operating lease agreements, postretirement benefit obligations, purchase obligations, interest on long-term debt and other long-term contractual obligations. As of December 31, 2020, minimum payments for these obligations were:
1 Amounts exclude unamortized discounts, debt issuance costs, and fair value adjustments.
2 Amounts represent expected contributions to our pension and other postretirement benefit plans through 2030, offset by expected Medicare Part D subsidy receipts.
3 Amount represents invoices received and recorded as liabilities in 2020, but scheduled for payment in 2021. These represent short-term obligations made in the ordinary course of business.
4 Amounts represent contractual obligations for material and services on order at December 31, 2020 but not yet delivered. These represent short-term obligations made in the ordinary course of business.
5 Amounts represent long-term commitments entered into with key suppliers for minimum purchases quantities.
6 Amounts represent estimated contractual interest payments on long-term debt, including finance lease interest payments.
7 Amounts represent contractual obligations primarily for logistics services agreements related to our former third party logistics business, software license and development contracts and IT consulting contracts and outsourcing contracts for benefit plan administration and software system support.
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The total amount of gross unrecognized tax benefits for uncertain tax positions, including positions impacting only the timing of tax benefits, was $1,759 million at December 31, 2020. Payment of these obligations would result from settlements with taxing authorities. Due to the difficulty in determining the timing of settlements, these obligations are not included in the table above. We do not expect to make a tax payment related to these obligations within the next year that would significantly impact liquidity.
Off-balance sheet arrangements
We are a party to certain off-balance sheet arrangements, primarily in the form of guarantees. Information related to guarantees appears in Note 21 - "Guarantees and product warranty" of Part II, Item 8 "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data".
RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
For a discussion of recent accounting pronouncements, see Note 1J - "New accounting guidance" of Part II, Item 8 "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts. The more significant estimates include: residual values for leased assets, fair values for goodwill impairment tests, warranty liability, reserves for product liability and insurance losses, postretirement benefits, post-sale discounts, credit losses and income taxes. We have incorporated many years of data into the determination of each of these estimates and we have not historically experienced significant adjustments. We review these assumptions at least annually with the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors. Following are the methods and assumptions used in determining our estimates and an indication of the risks inherent in each.
Residual values for leased assets - We determine the residual value of Cat Financial's leased equipment based on its estimated end-of-term market value. We estimate the residual value of leased equipment at the inception of the lease based on a number of factors, including historical wholesale market sales prices, past remarketing experience and any known significant market/ product trends. We also consider the following critical factors in our residual value estimates: lease term, market size and demand, total expected hours of usage, machine configuration, application, location, model changes, quantities, third-party residual guarantees and contractual customer purchase options.
Upon termination of the lease, the equipment is either purchased by the lessee or sold to a third party, in which case we may record a gain or a loss for the difference between the estimated residual value and the sale price.
During the term of our leases, we monitor residual values. For operating leases, we record adjustments to depreciation expense reflecting changes in residual value estimates prospectively on a straight-line basis. For finance leases, we recognize residual value adjustments through a reduction of finance revenue over the remaining lease term.
We evaluate the carrying value of equipment on operating leases for potential impairment when we determine a triggering event has occurred. When a triggering event occurs, we perform a test for recoverability by comparing projected undiscounted future cash flows to the carrying value of the equipment on operating leases. If the test for recoverability identifies a possible impairment, we measure the fair value of the equipment on operating leases in accordance with the fair value measurement framework. We recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying value of the equipment on operating leases exceeds its estimated fair value.
At December 31, 2020, the aggregate residual value of equipment on operating leases was $2.07 billion. Without consideration of other factors such as third-party residual guarantees or contractual customer purchase options, a 10 percent non-temporary decrease in the market value of our equipment subject to operating leases would reduce residual value estimates and result in the recognition of approximately $95 million of additional annual depreciation expense.
Fair values for goodwill impairment tests - We test goodwill for impairment annually, at the reporting unit level, and whenever events or circumstances make it more likely than not that an impairment may have occurred, such as a significant adverse change in the business climate or a decision to sell all or a portion of a reporting unit. We perform our annual goodwill impairment test as of October 1 and monitor for interim triggering events on an ongoing basis.
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We review goodwill for impairment utilizing either a qualitative assessment or a quantitative goodwill impairment test. If we choose to perform a qualitative assessment and determine the fair value more likely than not exceeds the carrying value, no further evaluation is necessary. For reporting units where we perform the quantitative goodwill impairment test, we compare the fair value of each reporting unit, which we primarily determine using an income approach based on the present value of discounted cash flows, to the respective carrying value, which includes goodwill. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, we do not consider the goodwill impaired. If the carrying value is higher than the fair value, we recognize the difference as an impairment loss.
The impairment test process requires valuation of the respective reporting unit, which we primarily determine using an income approach based on a discounted five year forecasted cash flow with a year-five residual value. We compute the residual value using the constant growth method, which values the forecasted cash flows in perpetuity. We support the income approach by a reconciliation of our calculated fair value for Caterpillar to the company's market capitalization. The assumptions about future cash flows and growth rates are based on each reporting unit's long-term forecast and are subject to review and approval by senior management. A reporting unit's discount rate is a risk-adjusted weighted average cost of capital, which we believe approximates the rate from a market participant's perspective. The estimated fair value could be impacted by changes in market conditions, interest rates, growth rates, tax rates, costs, pricing and capital expenditures. We categorize the fair value determination as Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy due to its use of internal projections and unobservable measurement inputs.
Our annual impairment tests completed in the fourth quarter of 2020 indicated the fair value of each reporting unit was substantially above its respective carrying value, including goodwill. Caterpillar's market capitalization has remained significantly above the net book value of the Company.
An unfavorable change in our expectations for the financial performance of our reporting units, particularly long-term growth and profitability, would reduce the fair value of our reporting units. The demand for our equipment and related parts is highly cyclical and significantly impacted by commodity prices, although the impact may vary by reporting unit. The energy and mining industries are major users of our products, including the coal, iron ore, gold, copper, oil and natural gas industries. Decisions to purchase our products are dependent upon the performance of those industries, which in turn are dependent in part on commodity prices. Lower commodity prices or industry specific circumstances that have a negative impact to the valuation assumptions may reduce the fair value of our reporting units. Should such events occur and it becomes more likely than not that a reporting unit's fair value has fallen below its carrying value, we will perform an interim goodwill impairment test(s), in addition to the annual impairment test. Future impairment tests may result in a goodwill impairment, depending on the outcome of the quantitative impairment test. We would report a goodwill impairment as a non-cash charge to earnings.
Warranty liability - At the time we recognize a sale, we record estimated future warranty costs. We determine the warranty liability by applying historical claim rate experience to the current field population and dealer inventory. Generally, we base historical claim rates on actual warranty experience for each product by machine model/engine size by customer or dealer location (inside or outside North America). We develop specific rates for each product shipment month and update them monthly based on actual warranty claim experience. Warranty costs may differ from those estimated if actual claim rates are higher or lower than our historical rates.
Product liability and insurance loss reserve - We determine these reserves based upon reported claims in process of settlement and actuarial estimates for losses incurred but not reported. Loss reserves, including incurred but not reported reserves, are based on estimates and ultimate settlements may vary significantly from such estimates due to increased claims frequency or severity over historical levels. The amount of these reserves totaled $1.2 billion and $1.1 billion as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The majority of the balance in both 2020 and 2019 consisted of unearned insurance premiums.
Postretirement benefits - We sponsor defined benefit pension plans and/or other postretirement benefit plans (retirement healthcare and life insurance) to employees in many of our locations throughout the world. There are assumptions used in the accounting for these defined benefit plans that include discount rate, expected return on plan assets, expected rate of compensation increase, the future health care trend rate, mortality and other economic and demographic assumptions. The actuarial assumptions we use may change or differ significantly from actual results, which may result in a material impact to our consolidated financial statements.
The effects of actual results differing from our assumptions and the effects of changing assumptions are considered actuarial gains or losses. We utilize a mark-to-market approach in recognizing actuarial gains or losses immediately through earnings upon the annual remeasurement in the fourth quarter, or on an interim basis as triggering events warrant remeasurement.
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Primary actuarial assumptions were determined as follows:
Discount rates are sensitive to changes in interest rates. A decrease in the discount rate would increase our obligation and future expense.
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Postretirement Benefit Plan Actuarial Assumptions Sensitivity
The effects of a one percentage-point change in certain actuarial assumptions on 2020 pension and OPEB costs and obligations are as follows:
2020 Benefit Cost Increase Year-end Benefit Obligation Increase
U.S. Pension benefits:
Assumed discount rate.................... $ 93$ (121) $(2,091) $ 2,551
Expected rate of compensation increase 1 - - - -
Expected long-term rate of return on plan assets (155) 155 - -
Non-U.S. Pension benefits:
Assumed discount rate 18 (26) (662) 847
Expected rate of compensation increase .....................5 (4) 43 (37)
Expected long-term rate of return on plan assets (42) 42 - -
Assumed discount rate ...............................10 (12) (381) 458
Expected rate of compensation increase - - 1 (1)
Expected long-term rate of return on plan assets (2) 2 - -
1 Effective December 31, 2019, all U.S. pension benefits were frozen, and accordingly this assumption is no longer applicable.
U.S. Pension Benefits Non-U.S. Pension Benefits Other Postretirement Benefits
2020 2019 2018 2020 2019 2018 2020 2019 2018
Weighted-average assumptions used to
determine benefit obligation, end of year:
Discount rate .......................2.4 % 3.2 % 4.2 % 1.4 % 1.9 % 2.5 % 2.3 % 3.2 % 4.2 %
Rate of compensation increase 1 ..........................................................- % - % 4.0 % 2.0 % 2.0 % 3.0 % 4.0 % 4.0 % 4.0 %
Weighted-average assumptions used to
determine net periodic benefit cost:
Discount rate used to measure service cost 1...- % 4.3 % 3.7 % 1.5 % 2.5 % 2.3 % 3.2 % 4.1 % 3.5 %
Discount rate used to measure interest cost....2.8 % 3.9 % 3.2 % 1.7 % 2.3 % 2.2 % 2.8 % 3.9 % 3.2 %
Expected rate of return on plan assets .......5.1 % 5.9 % 6.3 % 3.3 % 3.8 % 5.2 % 7.0 % 7.2 % 7.5 %
Rate of compensation increase 1 ...........- % 4.0 % 4.0 % 2.0 % 3.0 % 4.0 % 4.0 % 4.1 % 4.0 %
Health care cost trend rates at year-end:
Health care trend rate assumed for next year .................................................5.8 % 6.1 % 6.1 %
Rate that the cost trend rate gradually declines to ........................................5.0 % 5.0 % 5.0 %
Year that the cost trend rate reaches ultimate rate ........................................2025 2025 2025
1 Effective December 31, 2019, all U.S. pension benefits were frozen, and accordingly this assumption is no longer applicable.
See Note 12 - "Postemployment benefit plans" of Part II, Item 8 "Financial Statement and Supplemental Data" for further information regarding the accounting for postretirement benefits.
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Post-sale discount reserve - We provide discounts to dealers through merchandising programs. We have numerous programs that are designed to promote the sale of our products. The most common dealer programs provide a discount when the dealer sells a product to a targeted end user. The amount of accrued post-sale discounts was $1.4 billion and $1.7 billion as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The reserve represents discounts that we expect to pay on previously sold units and is reviewed at least quarterly. We adjust the reserve if discounts paid differ from those estimated. Historically, those adjustments have not been material.
Allowance for credit losses - The allowance for credit losses is management's estimate of expected losses over the life of our finance receivable portfolio calculated using loss forecast models that take into consideration historical credit loss experience, current economic conditions and forecasts and scenarios that capture country and industry-specific economic factors. In addition, we consider qualitative factors not able to be fully captured in our loss forecast models, including borrower-specific and company-specific factors. These qualitative factors are subjective and require a degree of management judgment.
We measure the allowance for credit losses on a collective (pool) basis when similar risk characteristics exist and on an individual basis when we determine that similar risk characteristics do not exist. We identify finance receivables for individual evaluation based on past-due status and information available about the customer, such as financial statements, news reports and published credit ratings, as well as general information regarding industry trends and the economic environment in which our customers operate. The allowance for credit losses attributable to finance receivables that are individually evaluated is based on the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the receivables' effective interest rate, the fair value of the collateral for collateral-dependent receivables or the observable market price of the receivable. In determining collateral value, we estimate the current fair market value of the collateral less selling costs. We also consider credit enhancements such as additional collateral and contractual third-party guarantees.
While management believes it has exercised prudent judgment and applied reasonable assumptions, there can be no assurance that in the future, changes in economic conditions or other factors would not cause changes in the financial health of our customers. If the financial health of our customers deteriorates, the timing and level of payments received could be impacted and therefore, could result in a change to our estimated losses.
Income taxes - We are subject to the income tax laws of the many jurisdictions in which we operate. These tax laws are complex, and the manner in which they apply to our facts is sometimes open to interpretation. In establishing the provision for income taxes, we must make judgments about the application of these inherently complex tax laws. Our income tax positions and analysis are based on currently enacted tax law. Future changes in tax law or related interpretations could significantly impact the provision for income taxes, the amount of taxes payable, and the deferred tax asset and liability balances. Changes in tax law are reflected in the period of enactment with related interpretations considered in the period received.
Despite our belief that our tax return positions are consistent with applicable tax laws, we believe that taxing authorities could challenge certain positions. Settlement of any challenge can result in no change, a complete disallowance, or some partial adjustment reached through negotiations or litigation. We record tax benefits for uncertain tax positions based upon management's evaluation of the information available at the reporting date. To be recognized in the financial statements, a tax benefit must be at least more likely than not of being sustained based on technical merits. The benefit for positions meeting the recognition threshold is measured as the largest benefit more likely than not of being realized upon ultimate settlement with a taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information. Significant judgment is required in making these determinations and adjustments to unrecognized tax benefits may be necessary to reflect actual taxes payable upon settlement. Adjustments related to positions impacting the effective tax rate affect the provision for income taxes. Adjustments related to positions impacting the timing of deductions impact deferred tax assets and liabilities. For tax years 2007 to 2012 including the impact of a loss carryback to 2005, the IRS has proposed to tax in the United States profits earned from certain parts transactions by Caterpillar SARL (CSARL), based on the IRS examination team's application of "substance-over-form" or "assignment-of-income" judicial doctrines. CSARL is primarily taxable locally in Switzerland. We are vigorously contesting the proposed increases to tax and penalties for these years of approximately $2.3 billion. We believe that the relevant transactions complied with applicable tax laws and did not violate judicial doctrines. The purchase of parts by CSARL from unrelated parties and the subsequent sale of those parts to unrelated dealers outside the United States have substantial legal, commercial, and economic consequences for the parties involved. Therefore, we have concluded that the largest amount of benefit that is more likely than not to be sustained related to this position is the entire benefit. As a result, no amount related to these IRS adjustments is reflected in unrecognized tax benefits. We have filed U.S. income tax returns on this same basis for years after 2012. We currently believe the ultimate disposition of this matter will not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, liquidity or results of operations.
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Deferred tax assets generally represent tax benefits for tax deductions or credits available in future tax returns. Certain estimates and assumptions are required to determine whether it is more likely than not that all or some portion of the benefit of a deferred tax asset will not be realized. In making this assessment, management analyzes the trend of U.S. GAAP earnings and estimates the impact of future taxable income, reversing temporary differences and available prudent and feasible tax planning strategies. We give less weight in this analysis to mark-to-market adjustments to remeasure our pension and OPEB plans as we do not consider these adjustments indicative of ongoing earnings trends. Should a change in facts or circumstances lead to a change in judgment about the ultimate realizability of a deferred tax asset, we record or adjust the related valuation allowance in the period that the change in facts and circumstances occurs, along with a corresponding increase or decrease in the provision for income taxes.
Additional information related to income taxes is included in Note 6 - "Income taxes" of Part II, Item 8 "Financial statements and Supplementary Data."
Information related to legal proceedings appears in Note 22-Environmental and Legal Matters of Part II, Item 8 "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."
We recognize mark-to-market gains and losses immediately through earnings upon the remeasurement of our pension and OPEB plans. Mark-to-market gains and losses represent the effects of actual results differing from our assumptions and the effects of changing assumptions. Changes in discount rates and differences between the actual return on plan assets and the expected return on plan assets generally have the largest impact on mark-to-market gains and losses.
The table below summarizes the amounts of net periodic benefit cost recognized for 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively, and includes expected cost for 2021.
1 Expected net periodic benefit cost (benefit) does not include an estimate for mark-to-market gains or losses.
The primary factors that resulted in mark-to-market losses for 2020, 2019 and 2018 are described below. We include the net mark-to-market losses in Other income (expense) in the Results of Operations.
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assets (U.S. pension plans had an actual rate of return of 16.7 percent compared to an expected rate of return of 5.1 percent).
Foreign Exchange Rate Sensitivity
ME&T operations use foreign currency forward and option contracts to manage unmatched foreign currency cash inflow and outflow. Our objective is to minimize the risk of exchange rate movements that would reduce the U.S. dollar value of our foreign currency cash flow. Our policy allows for managing anticipated foreign currency cash flow for up to approximately five years. Based on the anticipated and firmly committed cash inflow and outflow for our ME&T operations for the next 12 months and the foreign currency derivative instruments in place at year-end, a hypothetical 10 percent weakening of the U.S. dollar relative to all other currencies would adversely affect our expected 2021 cash flow for our ME&T operations by approximately $126 million. Last year similar assumptions and calculations yielded a potential $225 million adverse impact on 2020 cash flow. We determine our net exposures by calculating the difference in cash inflow and outflow by currency and adding or subtracting outstanding foreign currency derivative instruments. We multiply these net amounts by 10 percent to determine the sensitivity.
In managing foreign currency risk for our Financial Products operations, our objective is to minimize earnings volatility resulting from conversion and the remeasurement of net foreign currency balance sheet positions and future transactions denominated in foreign currencies. Since our policy allows the use of foreign currency forward, option and cross currency contracts to offset the risk of currency mismatch between our assets and liabilities and exchange rate risk associated with future transactions denominated in foreign currencies, a 10 percent change in the value of the U.S. dollar relative to all other currencies would not have a material effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flow. Neither our policy nor the effect of a 10 percent change in the value of the U.S. dollar has changed from that reported at the end of last year.
The effect of the hypothetical change in exchange rates ignores the effect this movement may have on other variables, including competitive risk. If it were possible to quantify this competitive impact, the results would probably be different from the sensitivity effects shown above. In addition, it is unlikely that all currencies would uniformly strengthen or weaken relative to the U.S. dollar. In reality, some currencies may weaken while others may strengthen. Our primary exposure (excluding competitive risk) is to exchange rate movements in the Australian dollar, Chinese yuan, Japanese yen, Euro, and Swiss franc.
Interest Rate Sensitivity
For our ME&T operations, we have the option to use interest rate contracts to lower the cost of borrowed funds by attaching fixed-to-floating interest rate contracts to fixed-rate debt, and by entering into forward rate agreements on future debt issuances. A hypothetical 100 basis point adverse move in interest rates along the entire interest rate yield curve would have a minimal impact to the 2021 pre-tax earnings of ME&T. Last year, similar assumptions and calculations yielded a minimal impact to 2020 pre-tax earnings.
For our Financial Products operations, we use interest rate derivative instruments primarily to meet our match-funding objectives and strategies. We have a match-funding policy that addresses the interest rate risk by aligning the interest rate profile (fixed or floating rate and duration) of our debt portfolio with the interest rate profile of our finance receivable portfolio within a predetermined range on an ongoing basis. In connection with that policy, we use interest rate derivative instruments to modify the debt structure to match assets within the finance receivable portfolio. Match funding reduces the volatility of margins between interest-bearing assets and interest-bearing liabilities, regardless of which direction interest rates move.
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In order to properly manage sensitivity to changes in interest rates, Financial Products measures the potential impact of different interest rate assumptions on pre-tax earnings. All on-balance sheet positions, including derivative financial instruments, are included in the analysis. The primary assumptions included in the analysis are that there are no new fixed rate assets or liabilities, the proportion of fixed rate debt to fixed rate assets remains unchanged and the level of floating rate assets and debt remain constant. An analysis of the December 31, 2020 balance sheet, using these assumptions, estimates the impact of a 100 basis point immediate and sustained adverse change in interest rates to have a minimal impact on 2021 pre-tax earnings. Last year, similar assumptions and calculations yielded a minimal impact to 2020 pre-tax earnings.
This analysis does not necessarily represent our current outlook of future market interest rate movement, nor does it consider any actions management could undertake in response to changes in interest rates. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that actual results would be consistent with the results of our estimate.
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NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES
We provide the following definitions for the non-GAAP financial measures used in this report. These non-GAAP financial measures have no standardized meaning prescribed by U.S. GAAP and therefore are unlikely to be comparable to the calculation of similar measures for other companies. Management does not intend these items to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for the related GAAP measures.
We believe it is important to separately quantify the profit impact of three significant items in order for our results to be meaningful to our readers. These items consist of (i) pension and OPEB mark-to-market losses resulting from plan remeasurements, (ii) restructuring costs, which were incurred to generate longer-term benefits, and (iii) U.S. tax reform impact in 2019. We do not consider these items indicative of earnings from ongoing business activities and believe the non-GAAP measures will provide investors with useful perspective on underlying business results and trends and aid with assessing our period-over-period results. In addition, we provide a calculation of ME&T free cash flow as we believe it is an important measure for investors to determine the cash generation available for financing activities including debt repayments, dividends and share repurchases.
Reconciliations of adjusted results to the most directly comparable GAAP measures are as follows:
Three Months Ended December 31, 2019 - US GAAP $ 1,850 14.1 % $ 1,365 $ 276 20.2 % $ 1,098 $ 1.97
Pension/OPEB mark-to-market (gains) losses - -% 468 105 22.4 % 363 $ 0.65
Restructuring costs 54 0.4 % 54 10 19.0 % 44 $ 0.08
Three Months Ended December 31, 2019 - Adjusted $ 1,904 14.5 % $ 1,887 $ 391 20.7 % $ 1,505 $ 2.71
Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2019 - US GAAP $ 8,290 15.4 % $ 7,812 $ 1,746 22.4 % $ 6,093 $ 10.74
Pension/OPEB mark-to-market (gains) losses - -% 468 105 22.4 % 363 $ 0.64
Restructuring costs 236 0.4 % 236 45 19.0 % 191 $ 0.34
U.S. tax reform impact - -% - 178 -% (178) $ (0.31)
Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2019 - Adjusted $ 8,526 15.8 % $ 8,516 $ 2,074 24.4 % $ 6,469 $ 11.40
Reconciliations of ME&T free cash flow to the most directly comparable GAAP measure, net cash provided by operating activities are as follows:
1 See reconciliation of ME&T net cash provided by operating activities to consolidated net cash provided by operating activities on page 60.
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Supplemental Consolidating Data
We are providing supplemental consolidating data for the purpose of additional analysis. We have grouped the data as follows:
Consolidated - Caterpillar Inc. and its subsidiaries.
Machinery, Energy & Transportation - We define ME&T as it is presented in the supplemental data as Caterpillar Inc. and its subsidiaries, excluding Financial Products. ME&T's information relates to the design, manufacturing and marketing of our products.
Financial Products - We define Financial Products as it is presented in the supplemental data as our finance and insurance subsidiaries, primarily Caterpillar Financial Services Corporation (Cat Financial) and Cat Insurance Holdings Inc. (Insurance Services). Financial Products' information relates to the financing to customers and dealers for the purchase and lease of Caterpillar and other equipment.
Consolidating Adjustments - Eliminations of transactions between ME&T and Financial Products.
The nature of the ME&T and Financial Products businesses is different, especially with regard to the financial position and cash flow items. Caterpillar management utilizes this presentation internally to highlight these differences. We believe this presentation will assist readers in understanding our business.
Pages 58 to 65 reconcile ME&T and Financial Products to Caterpillar Inc. consolidated financial information. Certain amounts for prior periods have been reclassified to conform to current year presentation.
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Supplemental Data for Results of Operations
1 Elimination of Financial Products' revenues earned from ME&T.
2 Elimination of net expenses recorded by ME&T paid to Financial Products.
3 Elimination of interest expense recorded between Financial Products and ME&T.
4 Elimination of discount recorded by ME&T on receivables sold to Financial Products and of interest earned between ME&T and Financial Products as well as dividends paid by Financial Products to ME&T.
5 Elimination of equity profit (loss) earned from Financial Products' subsidiaries partially owned by ME&T subsidiaries.
6 Elimination of noncontrolling interest profit (loss) recorded by Financial Products for subsidiaries partially owned by ME&T subsidiaries.
7 Profit attributable to common shareholders.
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Supplemental Data for Financial Position
At December 31 Supplemental consolidating data